Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:21 issue:2

Article
Impact Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Columns with Side Openings Subjected to Eccentric Axial Loads
التحليل الصدمي لأعمدة خرسانيه مسلحة حاوية على فتحات جانبيه ومعرضة لأحمال محورية لا مركزية

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Abstract

In this research the behavior of reinforced concrete columns with large side openings under impact loads was studied. The overall cross sectional dimensions of the column specimens used in this research were (500*1400) mm with total height of (14000) mm. The dimensions of side openings were (600*2000) mm. The column was reinforced with (20) mm diameter in longitudinal direction, while (12) mm ties were used in the transverse direction. The effect of eccentric impact loads on the horizontal and vertical displacement for this column was studied. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been carried out using ready computer finite element package (ANSYS) to simulate the behavior of the reinforced concrete column with large side openings. Two load cases were considered in this investigation (C1, C2) with three different load values for each case. In the first case (C1) the loads was applied to one side of the column and in the second case (C2) the loads was applied to both sides. An Equilateral triangular load-time function was used for simulation the impact load results from gantry cranes supported by the column with total time duration (0.1 sec). In order to verify the analysis method, as no experimental data exist for comparing the obtained results, another analysis is made for tested conventional column under impact load at mid-height and good agreement has been obtained. For the above mentioned column, the maximum displacements were (33.3, 22.2) mm in the horizontal and longitudinal direction respectively, location of the maximum horizontal displacement was at the crown of the column. By comparing the results of the first loading case with the second one it is shown that in the horizontal direction, maximum displacement increases by (139%), (208%), and (147%) respectively, also the maximum vertical displacement increases by (150%), (172%), and (172%) respectively.


Article
Symbolic aesthetics in steel structural systems
الجماليات الرمزية في أنظمة المنشآت الفولاذية

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Abstract

The aesthetic expression and its orders are important for steel structures forming. Steel structures are a compilation of structural elements, where its shapes have standard dimensions and pre-fabricated. As the steel construction systems not only aim to achieve the functional requirements for users, but must also have the symbolic aesthetics which provides visually and cognitive expression for viewers. In this sense the research interested in expressional aesthetics in these systems and highlights the importance of attention as structural items. Therefore the visual items which related with steel structures contain some of the most powerful forms of modern architecture, steel structures with a glass cladding, agility and accuracy in manufacture of structural elements as visual items, structural interest in the forms of spaces which have long span systems or in high buildings are different forms of expression and influence. So the research focuses on the study of those expressive patterns related with the steel construction properties, including the advantages of these systems at the level of strength and firmness, flexibility and economy as well as aesthetic and expression. Accordingly, the research problem concentrated on educational shortage in the study of the structural steel system aspects concerning constructional characteristic, expressive and aesthetic features, and how to deal with them as a language bearing the symbols and meanings which have clear structural style, because it the best ways to make those systems as communication means with users, by premise that the use of expressional symbol in steel construction increases the aesthetic value. Therefore the research aims to reveal the most structural and expressive patterns by analysis the expressional means and steel structural aesthetics.


Article
Effect of Saturation of Sandy Soil on the Displacement Amplitude of Soil Foundation System under Vibration
تأثير اشباع التربة الرملية بالماء على الاستجابة الديناميكية للازاحة تحت تأثير احمال الاهتزاز

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Abstract

In this study, the response and behavior of machine foundations resting on dry and saturated sand was investigated experimentally. A physical model was manufactured to simulate steady state harmonic load at different operating frequencies. The effect of relative density, depth of embedment, foundation area as well as the imposed harmonic load was investigated. It was found that the amplitude of displacement of the foundation increases with increasing the amplitude of dynamic force and operating frequency meanwhile it decreases with increasing the relative density of sand, degree of saturation, depth of embedment and contact area of footing. The maximum displacement was noticed at 33.34 to 41.67 Hz. The maximum displacement amplitude response of the foundation resting on dry sand models is more than that on the saturated sand by about 5.0 to 10 %.


Article
Unit Price and Cost Estimation Equations through Items Percentage of Construction Works in a Desert Area
تخمين كلف الفقرات الانشائية ونسبها ومعادلاتها في المناطق الصحراوية

Authors: Kadhim Raheem كاظم رحيم
Pages: 37-47
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Abstract

This research will cover different aspects of estimating process of construction work in a desert area. The inherent difficulties which accompany the cost estimating of the construction works in desert environment in a developing country, will stem from the limited information available, resources scarcity, low level of skilled workers, the prevailing severe weather conditions and many others, which definitely don't provide a fair, reliable and accurate estimation. This study tries to present unit price to estimate the cost in preliminary phase of a project. Estimations are supported by developing mathematical equations based on the historical data of maintenance, new construction of managerial and school projects. Meanwhile, the research has determined the percentage of project items, in such a remote environment. Estimation equations suitable for remote areas have been formulated. Moreover, a procedure for unite price calculation is concluded.


Article
Punching Shear Strength of Self Compacted Ferrocement Slabs
مقاومة القص الثاقب للبلاطات الفيروسمنتيه ذاتية الرص

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Abstract

This study aims to investigate the behavior and strength of self-compacted ferrocement slabs under punching shear load. Experimental results of thirteen square ferrocement slabs of 500×500 mm simply supported on all edges are presented. The main parameters investigated include the volume fraction of reinforcement, slab thickness and size of load-bearing plate. The load deflection and cracking characteristics of the tested slabs are studied and compared. The test results showed that the volume fraction of wire mesh has significant effect on both ultimate load and displacement. The increase of slab thickness leads to decrease in deflection values and increase in stiffness of slabs. Both ductility and stiffness increase as the loaded area size is increased.


Article
Planning of Distribution Networks in Baghdad City
تخطيط شبكات التوزيع في مدينة بغداد

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Abstract

Planning of electrical distribution networks is considered of highest priority at the present time in Iraq, due to the huge increase in electrical demand and expansions imposed on distribution networks as a result of the great and rapid urban development. Distribution system planning simulates and studies the behavior of electrical distribution networks under different operating conditions. The study provide understanding of the existing system and to prepare a short term development plan or a long term plan used to guide system expansion and future investments needed for improved network performance. The objective of this research is the planning of Al_Bayaa 11 kV distribution network in Baghdad city based on the powerful and efficient CYMDist software as a tool for the simulation and analysis of the network. The planning method proposed in this thesis is to reach the optimum operating conditions of the network by combining the network reconfiguration in sequence with the insertion of capacitors with optimal sizing and locations. The optimum performance of the network is achieved by reducing losses, improving voltage profile and alleviating overload for transformers and cables.


Article
Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel by Oxidation and Solvent Extraction
ازالة الكبريت لوقود الديزل بواسطة الاكسدة و الاستخلاص بالمذيب

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Abstract

This research presents a study in ultra-desulfurization of diesel fuel produced from conventional hydro desulfurization process, using oxidation and solvent extraction techniques. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) was the organosulfur compound that had been detected in sulfur removal. The oxidation process used hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and acetic acid as homogeneous catalyst . The solvent extraction process used acetonitrile (ACN) and N-methyl – 2 - pyrrolidone (NMP) as extractants . Also the effect of five parameters (stirring speed :150 , 250 , 350 , and 450) rpm, temperature (30 , 40 , 45 , and 50) oC, oxidant/simulated diesel fuel ratio (0.5 , 0.75 , 1 , and 1.5) , catalyst/oxidant ratio(0.125,0.25,0.5,and0.75) , and solvent/simulated diesel fuel ratio(0.5,0.6,0.75,and1) were examined as well as solvent type. The results exhibit that the highest removal of sulfur is 98.5% using NMP solvent while it is 95.8% for ACN solvent. The set of conditions that show the highest sulfur removal is: stirring speed of 350 rpm , temperature 50oC , oxidant/simulated diesel fuel ratio 1 , catalyst/oxidant ratio 0.5 , solvent/simulated diesel fuel ratio 1. These best conditions were applied upon real diesel fuel (produced from Al-Dora refinery)with 1000 ppm sulfur content . It was found that sulfur removal was 64.4% using ACN solvent and 75% using NMP solvent


Article
Design a Multi-Choice Fuzzy Control System of the Greenhouse
تصميم نظام سيطرة ضبابي متعدد الاختيارات للبيت الزجاجي

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Abstract

Applications of nonlinear, time variant, and variable parameters represent a big challenge in a conventional control systems, the control strategy of the fuzzy systems may be represents a simple, a robust and an intelligent solution for such applications. This paper presents a design of fuzzy control system that consists of three sub controllers; a fuzzy temperature controller (FC_T), a fuzzy humidity controller (FC_H) and a ventilation control system; to control the complicate environment of the greenhouse (GH) using a proposed multi-choice control system approach. However, to reduce the cost of the crop production in the GH, the first choice is using the ventilation system to control the temperature and humidity of the GH environment according to the external climate if it is possible, if it is not possible then the second choice uses the FC_T to actuate the cooling-heating system to control the temperature and FC_H to actuate the humidifier-dehumidifier to control the humidity of the GH environment. The resultant is a robust, multi choice and multi-mode capability system. The designed system reflects the fuzzy system capability to deal with complicated environments and its flexibility to use the same design in controlling different applications


Article
Non-Linear Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates under General Out-Of-Plane Loading
التحليل اللاخطي في الصفائح المركبه لحمل الانحناءالعام

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Abstract

The theoretical analysis depends on the Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT) that is based on the Von-Káráman Theory and Kirchhov Hypothesis in the deflection analysis during elastic limit as well as the Hooke's laws of calculation the stresses. New function for boundary condition is used to solve the forth degree of differential equations which depends on variety sources of advanced engineering mathematics. The behavior of composite laminated plates, symmetric and anti-symmetric of cross-ply angle, under out-of-plane loads (uniform distributed loads) with two different boundary conditions are investigated to obtain the central deflection for mid-plane by using the Ritz method. The computer programs is built using Mat lab(R2011a), to solve non-linearity effects on the central deflection values of rectangular cross-ply composite laminated plates, aspect ratio, stresses, orthotropic factor (E/G) and orientations of fiber. The non-linear analysis results of (4.74%) for SSSS of 0^0/〖90〗^0/〖90〗^o/ 0^0cross-ply angle plate, (8.77%) for CCCC of 0^0/〖90〗^0cross-ply angle plate and (10.83%) for CCCC of 0^0/〖90〗^0/〖90〗^o/ 0^0cross-ply angle plate showed a good agreement with Reddy, 1997 results. Comparing between the analytical linear, non-linear and experimental results gave a big difference between linear and non-linear results, while, non-linear showed close results with experimental results.


Article
Vibration Analysis of a Composite Plate with Delamination
تحليل الاهتزاز للوحة مركبة مع التبطين

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Abstract

The use of composite materials has vastly increased in recent years. Great interest is therefore developed in the damage detection of composites using non- destructive test methods. Several approaches have been applied to obtain information about the existence and location of the faults. This paper used the vibration response of a composite plate to detect and localize delamination defect based on the modal analysis. Experiments are conducted to validate the developed model. A two-dimensional finite element model for multi-layered composites with internal delamination is established. FEM program are built for plates under different boundary conditions. Natural frequencies and modal displacements of the intact and damaged multi-layer composite plates are subsequently analyzed for various samples. Also, composite plates are made for vibration testing and analysis and to comparison of the numerical and experimental results, shows good agreement between them.

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