Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:21 issue:4

Article
Software Implementation of Binary BCH Decoder Using Microcontroller
التنفيذ البرمجي لفك ترميز شفرة BCH الثنائية باستعمال المسيطر الدقيق

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Abstract

In this paper a decoder of binary BCH code is implemented using a PIC microcontroller for code length n=127 bits with multiple error correction capability, the results are presented for correcting errors up to 13 errors. The Berkelam-Massey decoding algorithm was chosen for its efficiency. The microcontroller PIC18f45k22 was chosen for the implementation and programmed using assembly language to achieve highest performance. This makes the BCH decoder implementable as a low cost module that can be used as a part of larger systems. The performance evaluation is presented in terms of total number of instructions and the bit rate


Article
Valuation the Impact of Risks on the Goals and the Safety of Construction Projects in Iraq
تقييم تأثير المخاطر على اهداف وسلامة المشاريع الانشائية في العراق

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Abstract

Construction projects have a special nature and affect them many factors making them exposed to multiple risks as a result of the length of the implementation period and the multiplicity of stages, starting from the decision stage through implementation until the final delivery, which leads to increased uncertainty and the likelihood of risk. The process of analysis and risk management is one of the effective and productive methods that are used in managing the construction projects for the purpose of increasing the chances of ending the project successfully in terms of cost, time and quality and at the lowest possible problems. The research aims first to the effective planning for analysis and risk management with different levels of importance according to specific strategy and effective based on experts in the field of risk management and, second, reaching measures to respond to the risks in order to ensure the management of these risks in construction projects. In this research a number of risks are identified which that have been incurred actually after studying a number of completed construction projects and theoretical studies and interview a number of experts in the construction industry to determine the impact of these risks in each of the project's objectives and safety. It appeared that the most important risks in construction projects in Iraq is ( the lack of drawings for networks service through the site such as electrical drawings, phone, water, etc.) and ( differences between the implementation and the required specifications because of a misunderstanding of the plans and specifications, It also appeared that the biggest effect of the risks is the on the duration of the project and the least was on occupational safety, and the best response to the risk is to fix certain conditions in the contract followed by other responses.


Article
Importance of New Use of Concrete in Iraq Analysis of Development And Use of Concrete in Architecture
أهمية الإستخدام الحديث لمادة الخرسانة في العراق دراسة تحليلية لتطور إنتاج وإستخدام مادة الخرسانة في العمارة

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Abstract

Since its invention by the Ancient Romans and later developed during the mid-18th century, the concrete structure and finish, has been considered as the most powerful, practical, economic and constructional material that meets the building’s architectural and aesthetical requirements. By creating unique architectural forms, the pioneer architects used concrete widely to shape up their innovative designs and buildings. The pre-mixed ultra-high performance concrete which manufactured by Lafarge. The transparent concrete and cement that allow the light beams to pass through them, introduces remarkable well-lit architectural spaces within the same structural criteria. This product is a recyclable, sustainable, friendly environmental and cost efficient back up. Due to its characteristics, strength, flexibility, affordability and long term performance, the concert integrated and contributed in modern architecture, urbanism and civil developments. Apparently, most of the 20th Century architects employed high-tech concrete method to deliver Iconic and bespoke architectural monuments world-wide. The interaction between the architectural form and the concrete as a buildable, executable, structural and constructional material has been always the main concern for architects over generations. The formalism in architecture was first identified by the Art-Nouveau movement during the early 20 century in Europe as well as in Northern America. It formed, utilized and sculptured the concert to meet the use, function, aesthetical and spatial needs of spaces. This wave generated series of most significant, outstanding and impressive buildings in the architectural symbolized record. This was followed by the Brutalism architecture presented by Alison and Peter Smithson in England and also by Le Corbusier works in Marseille and India. However, Alvar Alto and Louis Khan have participated and established a tremendous use of concrete to erect public interest developments on the same era The concert as a structural element dominated the Metabolism architecture that represented by the Japanese architects like Kiyonori Kikutake, Kisho Kurokawa, Noboru Kawazoe, Masato Otakaand and Fumihiko Maki. They visualized the city of the future to be viable, evaluable, expandable, flexible structures that evoked the processes of organic growth as it is in nature. Their developments are often called technocratic and described as avant-garde with a rhetorical character. The Metabolist mega structures heavily relied on advanced technology and adaptable plug-in building techniques in using this material. The research concluded the influences of the concrete as a building material upon the modern and building forms from the outsets. By exploring the history of the material, expanding its characteristics and specifications and later demonstrating the modern architecture movements and architects, this research has achieved its targets to acknowledge the importance of concrete in the current construction market and architectural developments.


Article
Digital Image Authentication Algorithm Based on Fragile Invisible Watermark and MD-5 Function in the DWT Domain
خوارزمية أثبات اصالة الصور الرقمية بالاعتماد على العلامة المائية الهشة المخفية و دالة ملخص الرسالة الخامسة ضمن نطاق تحويل المويجات المنفصلة

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Abstract

Using watermarking techniques and digital signatures can better solve the problems of digital images transmitted on the Internet like forgery, tampering, altering, etc. In this paper we proposed invisible fragile watermark and MD-5 based algorithm for digital image authenticating and tampers detecting in the Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT domain. The digital image is decomposed using 2-level DWT and the middle and high frequency sub-bands are used for watermark and digital signature embedding. The authentication data are embedded in number of the coefficients of these sub-bands according to the adaptive threshold based on the watermark length and the coefficients of each DWT level. These sub-bands are used because they are less sensitive to the Human Visual System (HVS) and preserve high image fidelity. MD-5 and RSA algorithms are used for generating the digital signature from the watermark data that is also embedded in the medical image. We apply the algorithm on number of medical images. The Electronic Patient Record (EPR) is used as watermark data. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of robustness, invisibility, and fragility. Watermark and digital signature can be extracted without the need to the original image.


Article
Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Modified Voronoi Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm
تجميع البيانات في شبكات المتحسسات اللاسلكية باستخدام خوارزميه التجميع المعدلة VFCA

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Abstract

Data centric techniques, like data aggregation via modified algorithm based on fuzzy clustering algorithm with voronoi diagram which is called modified Voronoi Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm (VFCA) is presented in this paper. In the modified algorithm, the sensed area divided into number of voronoi cells by applying voronoi diagram, these cells are clustered by a fuzzy C-means method (FCM) to reduce the transmission distance. Then an appropriate cluster head (CH) for each cluster is elected. Three parameters are used for this election process, the energy, distance between CH and its neighbor sensors and packet loss values. Furthermore, data aggregation is employed in each CH to reduce the amount of data transmission which lead to extend the network lifetime and reduce the traffic that may be accrue in the buffer of sink node. Each cluster head collected data from its members and forwards it to the sink node. A comparative study between modified VFCA and LEACH protocol is implemented in this paper and shows that the modified VFCA is more efficient than LEACH protocol in terms of network lifetime and average energy consumption. Another comparative study between modified VFCA and K-Means clustering algorithm is presented and shows that the modified VFCA is more efficient than K-Means clustering algorithm in terms of packets transmitted to sink node, buffer utilization, packet loss values and running time. A simulation process is developed and tested using Matlab R2010a program in a computer having the following properties: windows 7 (32-bit operating system), core i7, RAM 4GB, hard 1TB


Article
Improved Automatic Registration Adjustment of Multi-source Remote Sensing Datasets
تحسين عمليات تسجيل بيانات التحسس النائي آلياً

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Abstract

Registration techniques are still considered challenging tasks to remote sensing users, especially after enormous increase in the volume of remotely sensed data being acquired by an ever-growing number of earth observation sensors. This surge in use mandates the development of accurate and robust registration procedures that can handle these data with varying geometric and radiometric properties. This paper aims to develop the traditional registration scenarios to reduce discrepancies between registered datasets in two dimensions (2D) space for remote sensing images. This is achieved by designing a computer program written in Visual Basic language following two main stages: The first stage is a traditional registration process by defining a set of control point pairs using manual selection, then comput the parameters of global affine transformation model to match them and resample the images. The second stage included matching process refinement by determining the shift value in control points (CPs) location depending on radiometric similarity measure. Then shift map technique was adjusted to adjust the process using 2nd order polynomial transformation function. This function has chosen after conducting statistical analyses, comparing between the common transformation functions (similarity, affine, projection and 2nd order polynomial). The results showed that the developed approach reduced the root mean square error (RMSE) of registration process and decreasing the discrepancies between registered datasets with 60%, 57% and 48% respectively for each one of the three tested datasets.


Article
Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies of Reactive Orange Dye Biosorption by Garden Grass
دراسة توازن وثرموداينمكية الامتزاز الحيوي للصبغة البرتقالية باستخدام ثيل الحدائق

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Abstract

The present study aims to evaluate the biosorption of reactive orange dye by using garden grass. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor to obtain equilibrium and thermodynamic data. Experimental parameters affecting the biosorption process such as pH, shaking time, initial dye concentrations, and temperature were thoroughly examined. The optimum pH for removal was found to be 4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that the electronegative groups on the surface of garden grass were the major groups responsible for the biosorption process. Four sorption isotherm models were employed to analyze the experimental data of which Temkin and Pyzhey model was found to be most suitable one. The maximum biosorption capacity was 12.2 mg/g at 30 °C. The maximum removal percent reached 90% at optimum conditions. Therefore, the pretreatment or modification of this biosorbent may enhance the biosorption capacity. Thermodynamic parameters (i.e., change in the free energy, the enthalpy, and the entropy) were also evaluated and their values revealed that the biosorption process was exothermic in nature and less favorable at high temperature.


Article
Competitive Removal of Cu2+, Cd2+and Ni2+by Iron Oxide Nanoparticle (Fe3O4)
الازالة التنافسية لايونات النحاس والكادميوم والنيكل بواسطة مادة النانو المازة(اوكسيد الحديد)

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Abstract

A competitive adsorption of Cu2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ ions from a synthetic wastewater onto nanomaterial was studied.(Fe3O4) nanoparticles obtained from US Research Nanomaterials, Inc., Houston, TX 77084, (USA), was used as nanosorbent. Experimental parameters included pH, initial metal concentrations, and temperature were studied for nanosorbent. The uptake capacity 11.5, 6.07 and 11.1 mg/g for Cu2+, Ni2+and Cd2+, respectively, onto nanosorbent . The optimum pH values was 6 and the contact time was 50 min. for Cu2+, Ni2+and Cd2+, respectively. The equilibrium isotherm for nanosorbent single system component is of a favorable type and Freundlich isotherm model gives the best fit model for representing the experimental data for this system. Binary and ternary component systems were conducted in order to find the adsorption isotherm constants for each component system using nanosorbent. A set of adsorption models were tested to choose the best fit model for the experimental data, Combination of Langmuir- Freundlich model seems to give the best fitting. In single, binary and ternary component systems, Cu2+ always adsorbed more favorable onto nanosorbent than Cd2+and Ni2+. The adsorption capacity parameters were: Cu2+> Cd2+> Ni2+. Thermodynamic study was carried out for these three pollutants onto nanosorbent. The results of adsorption show that the adsorption nature for heavy metals is an endothermic and physical nature process.


Article
Deterministic Analysis of Wind Loads Effects on High-Rise Buildings
التحليلات المحددة لتأثير أحمال الرياح على البنايات العالية متعددة الطوابق

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Abstract

This paper studies the effect of mean wind velocity on tall building. Wind velocity, wind profile and wind pressure have been considered as a deterministic phenomenon. Wind velocity has been modelled as a half-sinusoidal wave. Three exposures have been studied B, C, and D. Wind pressure was evaluated by equation that joined wind pressure with mean wind velocity, air density, and drag coefficient. Variations of dynamic load factor for building tip displacement and building base shear were studied for different building heights, different mode shapes, different terrain exposures, and different aspect ratios of building plan. SAP software, has been used in modelling and dynamic analysis for all case studies. Results For different building heights considered maximum dynamic load factor (DLF) occurs in height range from 100-150m because fundamental building frequency is so close as to dominate wind frequency. Effects of higher modes become insignificant for height greater than 175m. Effect of three different terrain exposures B, C, and D on DLF for tips displacement and building base shear have been insignificant effect on response of tip displacement and building base shear. . Finally, effect of aspect ratio λ for different building heights with dynamic load factor (DLF) for tips displacement and for building base shear have λ approaching 2, fundamental building frequency is so closed to dominate wind frequency.


Article
Strain Analysis of Surface Cracked Thin Flat Plate under Cycling Impact Loading Effect
تحليل الأنفعال لشق سطحي في صفيحة رقيقة تحت تأثير حمل صدمة متكرر

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Abstract

In this work, strains and dynamic crack growth were studied and analyzed in thin flat plate with a surface crack at the center, subjected to cycling low velocity impact loading for two types of aluminum plates (2024, 6061). Experimental and numerical methods were implemented to achieve this research. Numerical analysis using program (ANSYS11-APDL) based on finite element method used to analysis the strains with respect to time at crack tip and then find the velocity of the crack growth under cycling impact loading. In the experimental work, a rig was designed and manufactured to applying the cycling impact loading on the cracked specimens. The grid points was screened in front of the crack tip to measure the elastic-plastic displacements in the x and y direction by grid method, from which the strains are calculated. The results show that the strains increase with increasing in the crack length. It was found that the cumulative number of cycles leads to increase in the strain values with increasing in crack growth velocity.


Article
Ten Years of OpenStreetMap Project: Have We Addressed Data Quality Appropriately? – Review Paper
عشر سنوات منذ بداية مشروع OpenStreetMap : هل تمت السيطرة على جودة بياناته

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Abstract

It has increasingly been recognised that the future developments in geospatial data handling will centre on geospatial data on the web: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). The evaluation of VGI data quality, including positional and shape similarity, has become a recurrent subject in the scientific literature in the last ten years. The OpenStreetMap (OSM) project is the most popular one of the leading platforms of VGI datasets. It is an online geospatial database to produce and supply free editable geospatial datasets for a worldwide. The goal of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview of the quality assurance of OSM data. In addition, the credibility of open source geospatial data is discussed, highlighting the difficulties and challenges of VGI data quality assessment. The conclusion is that for OSM dataset, it is quite difficult to control its quality. It therefore makes sense to use OSM data for applications do not need high quality spatial datasets.

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