Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:21 issue:7

Article
Enhancing the Performance of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters Using Permanent Magnets
تحسين اداء حاصدات الطاقة الكهروضغطية باستخدام مغانط ثابتة

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Abstract

A cantilevered piezoelectric beam with a tip mass at its free end is a common energy harvester configuration. This paper introduces a new principle of designing such a harvester which increases the generated voltage without changing the natural frequency of the harvester: The attraction force between two permanent magnets is used to add stiffness to the system. This magnetic stiffening counters the effect of the tip mass on the natural frequency. Three setups incorporating piezoelectric bimorph cantilevers of the same type in different mechanical configurations are compared theoretically and experimentally to investigate the feasibility of this principle. Theoretical and experimental results show that magnetically stiffened harvesters have important advantages over conventional setups. They generate more voltage and they can be tuned across a wide range of excitation frequencies.


Article
Spiking Neural Network in Precision Agriculture
الشبكة العصبية المتصاعدة في الزراعة الدقيقة

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Abstract

In this paper, precision agriculture system is introduced based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Soil moisture considered one of environment factors that effect on crop. The period of irrigation must be monitored. Neural network capable of learning the behavior of the agricultural soil in absence of mathematical model. This paper introduced modified type of neural network that is known as Spiking Neural Network (SNN). In this work, the precision agriculture system is modeled, contains two SNNs which have been identified off-line based on logged data, one of these SNNs represents the monitor that located at sink where the period of irrigation is calculated and the other represents the soil. In addition, to reduce power consumption of sensor nodes Modified Chain-Cluster based Mixed (MCCM) routing algorithm is used. According to MCCM, the sensors will send their packets that are less than threshold moisture level to the sink. The SNN with Modified Spike-Prop (MSP) training algorithm is capable of identifying soil, irrigation periods and monitoring the soil moisture level, this means that SNN has the ability to be an identifier and monitor. By applying this system the particular agriculture area reaches to the desired moisture level.


Article
Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment Associated with Renewable Energy Generation in Microbial Fuel Cell Based on Mobilized Electroactive Biofilm on Zeolite Bearer
معالجة المطروحات السائلة للصناعة الدوائية مقترنة بتوليد الطاقة الكهربائية المستدامة بأستخدام خلية الوقود الاحيائية المجهزة بحبيبات الزيولايت كحامل بايولوجي في حجرة الانود

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Abstract

In this study, a novel application of lab-scale dual chambered air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been developed for simultaneous bio-treatment of real pharmaceutical wastewater and renewable electricity generation. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) was provided with zeolite-packed anodic compartment and a cation exchange membrane (CEM) to separate the anode and cathode. The performance of the proposed MFC was evaluated in terms of COD removal and power generation based on the activity of the bacterial consortium in the biofilm mobilized on zeolite bearer. The MFC was fueled with real pharmaceutical wastewater having an initial COD concentration equal to 800 mg/L and inoculated with anaerobic aged sludge. Results demonstrated that the COD removal efficiency, power density and current density were 66%, 2.4 mW/m2 and 10 mA/m2, respectively.


Article
A comparative Isothermal and Kinetic Study of the Adsorption of Lead (II) from Solution by Activated Carbon and Bentonite
دراسة مقارنة ازالة الرصاص من محلول بواسطة الكاربون المنشط والبنتونايت

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Abstract

This work is aiming to study and compare the removal of lead (II) from simulated wastewater by activated carbon and bentonite as adsorbents with particle size of 0.32-0.5 mm. A mathematical model was applied to describe the mass transfer kinetic. The batch experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption isotherm constants for each adsorbent, and five isotherm models were tested to choose the best fit model for the experimental data. The pore, surface diffusion coefficients and mass transfer coefficient were found by fitting the experimental data to a theoretical model. Partial differential equations were used to describe the adsorption in the bulk and solid phases. These equations were simplified and then solved using a technique with finite elements and orthogonal collection method for the bulk fluid and intraparticle phases, respectively. The results obtained from this work show that the equilibrium adsorption isotherms are favorable, and fitted well using the Freundlich model for activated carbon and bentonite. The activated carbon has a high value of pore diffusion coefficient, Dp, while bentonite has a high value of surface diffusion coefficient, Ds. This indicates that the pore diffusion controls the adsorption process for activated carbon, and the surface diffusion controls the adsorption process for bentonite. The activated carbon was more efficient than bentonite in removing of lead (II) from simulated industrial wastewater.


Article
Effect of Plasma Shot Peening on Mechanical Properties and Fatigue life of AL-Alloys 2024-T3
تأثير القذف بالبلازما على الخصائص الميكانيكية وعمر الكلال لسبيكة الألومنيوم 2024-T3

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Abstract

An Investigation of estimated Mechanical Properties of AL-Alloys 2024-T3, which is the most commonly used in industrial applications, been established experimentally. A new novel Plasma Peening techniques had applied for the whole surfaces of the material by CNC-Plasma machine for 48 specimen, and then a new investigation were toke over to figure the amount of change in mechanical properties and estimated fatigue life. It found that improvement was showing a nonlinear behavior according to peening duration time, speed, peening distance, peening number, and amount of effected power on the depth of the material thickness. The major improvement was at medium speed long duration time normal peening distance. Which shows up to 5 times improvements than the others cases. It was found that reducing in elongation of about 32% from references for 1x plasma peening for the most techniques used while a reduction in elongation of 56% for the 2x plasma peening. These results illustrated in both tables and figures. Farther study may established for other AL-Alloys to study the effects of plasma peening on it and to found the most effected one of them for the completely nine AL family.


Article
Optimal Location of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) for IEEE 5-Bus Standard System Using Genetic Algorithm
الموقع الأمثل للمعوض التزامني الثابت لمنظومة IEEE ذات (5) عقدة القياسية بأستخدام الخوارزمية الجينية

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Abstract

Heuristic approaches are traditionally applied to find the optimal size and optimal location of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices in power systems. Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique has been applied to solve power engineering optimization problems giving better results than classical methods. This paper shows the application of GA for optimal sizing and allocation of a Static Compensator (STATCOM) in a power system. STATCOM devices used to increase transmission systems capacity and enhance voltage stability by regulate the voltages at its terminal by controlling the amount of reactive power injected into or absorbed from the power system. IEEE 5-bus standard system is used as an example to illustrate the technique used. Results showed that the STATCOM was able to reduce the voltage deviation and the apparent power losses with minimum possible size of installation capacity for STATCOM devices. GA plays its own requirements by finding best location and best size of STATCOM devices.


Article
Block-Iterative Frequency-Domain Equalizations for SC-IDMA Systems
التعادلات الكتلية- المتكررة وبمجال ترددي لأنظمة (SC-IDMA)

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Abstract

In wireless broadband communications using single-carrier interleave division multiple access (SC-IDMA) systems, efficient multiuser detection (MUD) classes that make use of joint hybrid decision feedback equalization (HDFE)/ frequency decision-feedback equalization (FDFE) and interference cancellation (IC) techniques, are proposed in conjunction with channel coding to deal with several users accessing the multipath fading channels. In FDFE-IDMA, the feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) filtering operations of FDFE, which use to remove intersymbol interference (ISI), are implemented by Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs), while in HDFE-IDMA the only FF filter is implemented by FFTs. Further, the parameters involved in the FDFE/HDFE filtering are derived according to the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criteria, and the feedback symbol decisions are directly designed from soft detection of the decoded signals at the previous iteration. The simulation results including comparisons with those of frequency domain equalization (FDE), SC-FDE-IDMA and multi-carrier OFDM-IDMA schemes, with cyclic prefixing (CP) and zero padding (ZP) techniques, show that the combination of FDFE-IC/HDFE-IC provides an efficient solution with good performance for IDMA systems in ISI channels. Moreover, these iterative structures with block equalization yield a much lower complexity than equivalent existing structures, making them attractive for a wealth of applications.


Article
Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes
ازالة الكبريت من نفط خام الاحدب بأستخدام عملية الاكسدة

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Abstract

Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD) sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content). In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the oxidation/adsorption scheme, the experimental results indicated that the oxidation desulfurization efficiency was enhanced on using activated carbon as catalyst/sorbent. The effects of the operating conditions (contact time, temperature, mixing speed and sorbent dose) on the desulfurization efficiency were examined. The desulfurization efficiency measured at the best operating conditions(optimum conditions): 60 , 500rpm, 60min contact time and sorbent dose of 0.7g AC/100 ml AHD crude, was 32.8% corresponding to a sulfur content of 2.6 wt%. Applying the same optimum operating conditions and at 3:1 solvent/oil ratio, the oxidation/extraction method gave comparable desulfurization efficiency of 31.5%.


Article
Studying of Some Mechanical Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete Using Local Materials
دراسة بعض الخواص الميكانيكية لخرسانة المساحيق الفعالة باستخدم مواد محلية

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Abstract

This research aims to investigate and evaluate a reactive powder concrete (RPC) cast using economical materials. Its mechanical properties were investigated and evaluated by studying the effects of using different cement and silica fume contents and locally steel fibers aspect ratios as reinforcement for this concrete. A compressive strength of about 155.2MPa, indirect tensile strength of 16.0MPa, modulus of elasticity of 48.7GPa, flexural strength of 43.5MPa, impact energy of 3294.4kN.m and abrasion loss 0.59% have been achieved for reinforced RPC contains 910 kg/m3 cement content, silica fume content 185 kg/m3 of cement weight and fiber volume fraction 2%. The water absorption values were 1.5 times higher for the normal strength concrete in comparison with the reactive powder concrete.


Article
Studying of Some Mechanical Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete Using Local Materials
دراسة بعض الخواص الميكانيكية لخرسانة المساحيق الفعالة باستخدم مواد محلية

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Abstract

This research aims to investigate and evaluate a reactive powder concrete (RPC) cast using economical materials. Its mechanical properties were investigated and evaluated by studying the effects of using different cement and silica fume contents and locally steel fibers aspect ratios as reinforcement for this concrete. A compressive strength of about 155.2MPa, indirect tensile strength of 16.0MPa, modulus of elasticity of 48.7GPa, flexural strength of 43.5MPa, impact energy of 3294.4kN.m and abrasion loss 0.59% have been achieved for reinforced RPC contains 910 kg/m3 cement content, silica fume content 185 kg/m3 of cement weight and fiber volume fraction 2%. The water absorption values were 1.5 times higher for the normal strength concrete in comparison with the reactive powder concrete.


Article
Cathodic Protection for Above Ground Storage Tank Bottom Using Data Acquisition
السيطرة على الحماية الكاثودية لقاعدة الخزان فوق الارض باستخدام بطاقة تبادل البيانات

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Abstract

Impressed current cathodic protection controlled by computer gives the ideal solution to the changes in environmental factors and long term coating degradation. The protection potential distribution achieved and the current demand on the anode can be regulated to protection criteria, to achieve the effective protection for the system. In this paper, cathodic protection problem of above ground steel storage tank was investigated by an impressed current of cathodic protection with controlled potential of electrical system to manage the variation in soil resistivity. Corrosion controller has been implemented for above ground tank in LABVIEW where tank's bottom potential to soil was manipulated to the desired set point (protection criterion 850 mV). National Instruments Data Acquisition (NI-DAQ) and PC controllers for tank corrosion control system provides quick response to achieve steady state condition for any kind of disturbances.


Article
Evaluation of Alum/Lime Coagulant for the Removal of Turbidity from Al- Ahdab Iraqi Oilfields Produced Water
قييم مخثر الشب - النورة في ازالة العكورة من المياه المصاحبة لأنتاج النفط من حقول الأحدب العراقية

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Abstract

The removal of turbidity from produced water by chemical coagulation/flocculation method using locally available coagulants was investigated. Aluminum sulfate (alum) is selected as a primary coagulant, while calcium hydroxide (lime) is used as a coagulant aid. The performance of these coagulants was studied through jar test by comparing turbidity removal at different coagulant/ coagulants aid ratio, coagulant dose, water pH, and sedimentation time. In addition, an attempt has been made to examine the relationship between turbidity (NTU) and total suspended solids (mg/L) on the same samples of produced water. The best conditions for turbidity removal can be obtained at 75% alum+25% lime coagulant at coagulant dose of 80 mg/l at pH 6 and 120 min for sedimentation time. At these conditions, the turbidity reading was reduced from 92 to 2.1 NTU.

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