Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Contact info

Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:21 issue:11

Article
Vibration analysis of angle-ply laminates composite plate under thermo-mechanical effect
تحليل الاهتزاز للصفائح المركبة تحت تأثير احمال ميكانيكية حرارية

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Abstract

The paper presents mainly the dynamic response of an angle ply composite laminated plates subjected to thermo-mechanical loading. The response are analyzed by analytically using Newmark direct integration method with Navier solution, numerically by ANSYS. The experimental investigation is to fabricate the laminates and to find mechanical and thermal properties of glass-polyester such as longitudinal, transverse young modulus, shear modulus, longitudinal and transverse thermal expansion. Present of temperature could increase dynamic response of plate also depending on lamination angle, type of mechanical load and the value of temperature.


Article
Greening Existing Buildings in Contemporary Iraqi Urban Reality/ Virtual Model
تخضير المباني القائمة في الواقع العمراني العراقي المعاصر/ نموذج إفتراضي

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Abstract

The approach of greening existing buildings, is an urgent necessity, because the greening operation provides the speed and optimal efficiency in the environmental performance, as well as keeping up with the global green architecture revolution. Therefore, greening existing buildings in Iraq is important for trends towards renewable energies, because of what the country went through economic conditions and crises and wars which kept the country away from what took place globally in this issue. The research problem is: insufficient knowledge about the importance and the mechanism of the greening of existing buildings, including its environmental and economic dimensions, by rationalization of energy consumption and preserving the environment. The research objective is: clarifying the importance of greening existing buildings environmentally and economically, providing a virtual experience for greening the presidency building of Baghdad University, through advanced computer program. The main conclusions is: there is difference representing by reducing the disbursed thermal loads amount for cooling in summer and heating in winter through the use of computerized program (DesignBuilder) and that after the implementation of greening operations on the building envelope, which confirms its effectiveness in raising the energy performance efficiency inside the building. Hence, the importance of the application of greening existing buildings approach in Iraq, to bring back Iraqi architecture to environmental and local track proper.


Article
ألأقسام التشخيصية والعلاجية للمستشفيات المعاصرة (الاشعة، المختبرات، العلاج الطبيعي )

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Abstract

This research study changes in the requirements space for diagnostic and therapeutic departments (radiology, laboratory and physical therapy), which aims to adopt the current technological developments and work to create a flexible environment that helps to absorb modern technology in the future , And reach to the ideas of a new architectural flexibility to deal with those departments , And that had a major impact on the workflow in the hospital and its spaces. Through the study of modern design requirements of those departments and the study estimates for all future expansions .


Article
Effects of Welding Parameters on Temperature Distribution and Tensile Strength of AA6061-T6 Welded by Friction Stir Welding
تاثير عوامل اللحام على توزيع درجات الحرارة ومقاومة الشد لســــــــــــــــــــبيكة المينيوم 6061-T6 باستخدام لحام الاحتكاك الدوراني

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Abstract

The present research aims to study the effect of friction stir welding (FSW) parameters on temperature distribution and tensile strength of aluminum 6061-T6. Rotational and traverse speeds used were (500,1000,1400 rpm) and (14,40,112 mm/min) respectively. Results of mechanical tests showed that using 500rpm and 14mm/min speed give the best strength. A three- dimensional fully coupled thermal-stress finite element model via ANSYS software has been developed. The Rate dependent Johnson-Cook relation was utilized for elasto-plastic work deformations. Heat-transfer is formulated using a moving heat source, and later used the transient temperature outputs from the thermal analysis to determine equivalent stresses in the welded plates via a 3-D thermo- mechanical simulation. Motion due to rotation and translation of the tool induces asymmetry in the material flow and heating across the tool pin. The rotation speed results in stirring and mingling of material around the tool and the movable tool moves the stirred material from the front to the back of the tool and finishes welding process. Higher rotation speed rates create higher temperature because of higher friction heating and result in more powerful stirring and mingling of material. A good agreement is evident between experimental and Ansys results.


Article
Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Fluid Flow in Multi Tube Heat Exchanger Fitted with Perforated Fins
خصائص انتقال الحرارة لمائع يجري خلال مبادل حراري متعدد الانابيب مجهز بزعانف مثقبة

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Abstract

The heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics for air flow cross over circular finned tube heat exchanger has been studied numerically and experimentally. The purpose of the study was to improve the heat transfer characteristics of an annular finned-tube heat exchanger for better performance. The study has concentrated on the effect of the number of perforations and perforations shapes on the heat transfer and pressure drop across a staggered finned tube heat exchanger. The Numerical part of present study has been performed using ANSYS Fluent 14.5 using SST Turbulent model, while the experimental study consist from a test rig with different models of heat exchangers and all required measurement devices were building up to cover the experimental work for the range of Reynolds number (7500-17500). The experimental results show that average Nusselt number of the six circular perforations fins model is about 11.08 % higher than that for solid fin model and with triangular perforations model is about 10.12 % higher than that for the solid fin. Triangular perforation finned heat exchanger model gives a best result than the other models due to excessive increment in the )Nu( in comparison with other models take in consideration pressure drop. The results were validated with previous work and the comparison between the experimental and numerical shows a good agreement with a maximum deviation ±10% between them.


Article
The Constituents of Active Structure in Contemporary Architectural Products
مقومات المنشأ الفعال في النتاج المعماري المعاصر

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Abstract

The structure is considered in its scientific formula one of the concepts which complete the architectural image that seeks to take out an effective and attractive structure in contemporary architectural production, especially that the structure -in general- represents strength in addition to delight and functional benefits according to Vitruvius trinity. So, the role of structure depends on making its aesthetical properties able to give efficiency within architectural product. That has come through adoption of intellectual mechanism of structural means and details –as a whole or parts- and focused on structure with the recipient's needs, aesthetical, and sensory purposes in addition to its fundamental role of stability, especially that the modern technology –in design and construction- has helped effectively to solve the formal and structural symbols of contemporary architectural product. Hence, it is necessary to put a knowledge gap to understand the constituents' intention and effective impact of structure beside the integration of the functional, sensual and aesthetical vocabulary, which represents a research problem. This research aims to highlight the potentials of structural connotations -which support the architectural products– and design connotations –which cooperate to create an active structure by its parts and vocabulary in order to determine the factors of architectural structrure effectiveness which represent the architectural value system for contemporary structural creative.


Article
Natural and Mixed Convection in Square Vented Enclosure Filled with Metal Foam
لحمل الحر و المختلط في حيز مربع يحوي فتحات و مملوء برغوة معدنية

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Steady natural and mixed convection flow in a square vented enclosure filled with water-saturated aluminum metal foam is numerically investigated. The left vertical wall is kept at constant temperature and the remaining walls are thermally insulated. Forced convection is imposed by providing an inlet at cavity bottom surface, and a vent at the top surface. Natural convection takes place due to the temperature difference inside the enclosure. Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model for fluid flow and the two-equation of the local thermal non-equilibrium model for heat flow was adopted to describe the flow characteristics within the porous cavity. Numerical results are obtained for a wide range of width of the inlet as a fraction of the height of the enclosure (D⁄H=0.1-0.6), the porosity of aluminum foams (ε=0.91, 0.97), Grashof numbers (Gr=〖10〗^4-3×〖10〗^6), and Reynolds number (Re=1-20). Effects of pertinent physical parameters are performed in terms of the flow and temperature fields, as well as the average Nusselt number variations. The results show that the average Nusselt number increases with D⁄H and Re and decreases with the porosity increasing. The fluid temperature distribution has a little difference from the solid matrix temperature distribution.


Article
Bit Performance in Directional Oil Wells
ادائية الحافرة في الابار النفطية الموجهة

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Abstract

This work aims to analyze and study the bit performance in directional oil wells which leads to get experience about the drilled area by monitoring bit performance and analyzing its work. This study is concerned with Rumaila Oil Field by studying directional hole of one oil well with different angles of inclination. Drilling program was used in order to compare with used parameters (WOB, RPM and FR).in those holes. The effect of the drilling hydraulic system on the bit performance was studied as well as the hydraulic calculation can be done by using Excel program. This study suggests method which is used to predict the value of penetration rate by studying different formation type to choose the best drilling parameters to drill each formation. Finally, the main aim of this research is to have the benefit from the past well drilling data to drill new wells without needing new drilling program for each well, also knowing the problems of each formation to avoid them as soon as possible through drilling the new wells, which will improve the bit performance.


Article
Numerical Simulation of Flow in Rectangular Duct with Different Obstruction Heights
محاكاة عددية للجريان داخل مجرى مزود بعوارض ذات ارتفاعات متغيرة

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Abstract

In this study, a simulation model inside a channel of rectangular section with high of (0.16 m) containing two rectangular obstruction plates were aligned variable heights normal to the direction of flow, use six model of the obstructions height of (0.059, 0.066, 0.073, 0.08 and 0.087 m) were compared with the flow behavior of the same duct without obstructions. To predict the velocity profile, pressure distribution, pressure coefficient and turbulence kinetic energy flow of air, the differential equations which describe the flow were approximated by the finite volumes method for two dimensional, by using commercial software package (FLUENT) with standard of k-ε model two dimensions turbulence flow. The obtained results show that the velocity and the turbulence kinetic energy increase with increasing the obstructions height perpendicular to the flow direction. Streamlines contours used to show mixing of averaged flow-field in one pitch length. The streamlines helped to distinguish between important separated regions of the flow as well. Compared the first model of height of obstruction (0.059 m) with the fifth model of the obstruction of height (0.087 m) it is obtained an increasing in velocity about of (71 %) at the first obstruction and an increasing about (47 %) at the second obstruction. The data obtained by simulation are matching with previous the literature value.


Article
Enhancement Solution to Improve Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Lead by Electrical Field
محاليل التحسين لمعالجة التربة الملوثة بالرصاص بواسطة المجال الكهربائي

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A laboratory investigation of six different tests were conducted on silty clay soil spiked with lead in concentrations of 1500 mg/kg. A constant DC voltage gradient of 1 V/cm was applied for all these tests with duration of 7 days remediation process for each test. Different purging solutions and addition configurations, i.e. injection wells, were investigated experimentally to enhance the removal of lead from Iraqi soil during electro-kinetic remediation process. The experimental results showed that the overall removal efficiency of lead for tests conducted with distilled water, 0.1 M acetic acid, 0.2 M EDTA and 1 M ammonium citrate as the purging solutions were equal to 18 %, 37 %, 42 %, and 29 %, respectively. However, introducing the injection wells as another enhancement technique into the tests used the same purging solutions mentioned above which have vital role in increasing the removal efficiency up to 59 %.


Article
Treatment of Wastewater Contaminated with Pesticide (Alachlor) by Solar Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Processes
معالجة المياه الملوثة بالمبيد (الاكلور) باستخدام عمليات الاكسدة المتقدمة المعززة بالطاقة الشمسية

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The degradation performance of aqueous solution of pesticide Alachlor has been studied at solar pilot scale plant in two photocatalytic systems: homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide. The pilot scale system included of compound parabolic collectors specially designed for solar photocatalytic applications, and installed at University of Baghdad, Department of Environmental Engineering back yard. The influence of different concentrations, H2O2 (200-2400 mg/l), Fe+2(5- 30 mg/l) and TiO2 (100-500 mg/l) and their relationship with the degradation efficiency were studied. The COD removal efficiency for homogeneous photocatalytic system at the best dosage was found to be 73.7%. The parent pollutant concentrations which were monitored using HPLC decreased to reach zero level at early time of the experiment. For heterogeneous photocatalytic system the COD removal efficiency was found to be 72.7%.


Article
Experimental Evaluation of Thermal Performance of Solar Assisted Vapor Compression Heat Pump
تقييم الاداء الحراري لمضخة حرارية من نوع ضغط البخار بمساعدة الطاقة الشمسية عمليا

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The thermal performance of indirect expansion solar assisted heat pump, IX-SAHP, was investigated experimentally under Iraqi climate. An Indirect-Solar Assisted Heat Pump system was designed, built, instrumented and tested. Experimental tests were conducted by varying the controlling parameters to investigate their effects on the thermal performance of the IX-SAHP such as cooling water flow rate, heating water flow rate, ambient temperature and solar radiation intensity. The investigation covered values of cooling water flow rate of (2, 3, 4, 5 l/min) and heating water flow rate of (2, 3, 4, 5 l/min) under meteorological condition of Baghdad from November 2014 to January 2015. The results indicated that the performance of the IX-SAHP is not dependent on the heating water flow rate. On the contrary of heating water flow rate, cooling water flow rate has significant effect on the thermal performance of the system. The COP of the heat pump system is decreased with increasing cooling water flow rate. The collector heat gain increase with increasing the solar radiation and ambient temperature, this leads to increase in COP from 2.2 to 2.39 as the ambient temperature and solar radiation increase from 9.9℃ and 268 W/m2 to 14.9 ℃ and 689 W/m2 respectively.


Article
BatchHeavy MetalsBiosorption by Punica granatum Peels: Equilibrium andKinetic Studies
ازالة المعادن الثقيلة من المياه الصناعيه بطريقة الامتزاز بأستعمال قشور الرمان: دراسة حركية الأتزان

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This research was conducted to study the feasibility of using fruit peels as biosorbent for removal of Pb+2, Cu+2 and Zn+2 ions from simulated wastewater. A waste biomass of Pomegranate Peel or Punicagranatum L. (P. granatum L.) was chosen as neutral biosorbent in this study.Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) was used to characterize the surface of PGP, the results confirm that amino, carboxylic, hydroxyl and carbonyl group on the surface of PGP. Different parameters such as initial concentration range between (25-200) mg/L, pH (3-7), contact time (1-2) hour, amount of sorbent (0.1- 4) gm, agitation speed range (200- 500) rpm and temperature (25- 50oC), influencing the sorptive process were examined. Sorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic data fit well by the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. Sorption processes were spontaneous and exothermic in nature according to the thermodynamic results and the equilibrium was attained within 60 minute. The amount of sorbed metal ions was calculated as 9.9, 9.5 and 7.75 mg/g dry PGP for Pb+2, Cu+2 and Zn+2ions, respectively, at pH 5; temperature 25oC; contact time 1hr and 4 gm of peels.


Article
Effect of Wood Flour Addition on the Pore Volume and BET Surface Area Properties of the Prepared Gamma Alumina (ɤ-Al2O3) Extrudates Used in Catalyst Carriers
تأثير إضافة طحين نشارة الخشب على خواص حجم المسام والمساحة السطحية نوع BET لمبثوقات الكاما ألومينا المستخدمة كحامل للعوامل المساعدة

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The effect of Wood Flour addition to the gamma alumina powder used in the preparation of gamma alumina (ɤ-Al2O3) catalyst carrier extrudates on the pore volume and BET surface area physical properties was investigated. Two parameters which are size of wood flour particles and its quantity were studied. The sizes of wood flour particles used are 150 µm, 212 µm and 500 µm and the weight percentage added to the gamma alumina powder during the preparation of the extrudates are (1%, 3%, 5% and 10%). The results showed that the addition of wood flour to the gamma alumina powder in order to get gamma alumina extrudates used as catalyst carrier is one of the successful methods to improve the pore volume and BET surface area of the alumina extrudates. The size of wood flour particles and its quantity have main effect on the above texture properties. The smaller the size of wood flour leaded to higher BET surface area, where maximum BET surface area of 127.3 m2/g was got with addition 10% by weight wood flour of 150µm particle size. BET surface area for the same addition percentage of 10% resulted to 114.5m2/g and 105.2m2/g when adding wood flour of 212 µm and 500 µm particle sizes respectively. The weight percentage of wood flour addition has an effect on the BET surface area, where the 3% addition gives maximum BET surface area when the size of the wood flour particles is 500 µm. Regarding the pore volume property for the gamma alumina prepared extrudates, the results showed that the pore volume of the extrudates increased to 0.83 cm3/g and 1.0 cm3/g when 10% wood flour of 150 µm and 500 µm particle sizes were added respectively. The maximum BET surface area was reached when 10% wood flour of 150 µm particle size was added, and the maximum pore volume was reached when 10% wood flour of 500 µm particle size was added, the increase percentage for the BET surface area and pore volume is more than 40% and 400% respectively.


Article
A Spike Neural Controller for Traffic Load Parameter with Priority-Based Rate in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
المسيطر العصبي المتصاعد لمعامل حمل المرور بالأعتماد على الاولوية لتحديد معدل الأرسال في الشبكات الآسلكية ذات الوسائط المتعددة

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Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are a type of sensor network that contains sensor nodes equipped with cameras, microphones; therefore the WMSNS are able to produce multimedia data such as video and audio streams, still images, and scalar data from the surrounding environment. Most multimedia applications typically produce huge volumes of data, this leads to congestion. To address this challenge, This paper proposes Modify Spike Neural Network control for Traffic Load Parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (MSNTLP with EWBPRC). The Modify Spike Neural Network controller (MSNC) can calculate the appropriate traffic load parameter μ for each parent node and then use in the EWPBRC algorithm to estimate the transmission rate of parent nodes and then assign a suitable transmission rate for each child node. A comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC) and fuzzy logic controller for traffic load parameter with Exponential Weight of Priority Based Rate Control algorithm (FTLP with EWBPRC) algorithm shows that the (MSNTLP with EWBPRC) is more efficient than (FTLP with EWBPRC) algorithm in terms of packet loss, queue delay and throughput. Another comparative study between (MSNTLP with EWBPRC) and EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ) shows that the MSNTLP with EWBPRC is more efficient than EWBPRC with fixed traffic load parameter (µ) in terms of packet loss ratio and queue delay. A simulation process is developed and tested using the network simulator _2 (NS2) in a computer having the following properties: windows 7 (64-bit), core i7, RAM 8GB, hard 1TB.

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