Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2017(56) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2016 volume:13 issue:1

Article
A study of Soil Invertebrates community in a Date - Palm plantation in Baghdad, Iraq
دراسة مجتمع لافقريات التربة في احد بساتين نخيل التمر في بغداد / العراق

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Soil invertebrates community an important role as part of essential food chain and responsible for the decomposition in the soil, helps soil aeration , nutrients recycling and increase agricultural production by providing the essential elements necessary for photosynthesis and energy flow in ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the soil invertebrates community in one of the date palms plantation in Aljaderia district South of Baghdad, , and their relationships with some physical and chemical properties of the soil , as Five randomly distributed replicates of soil samples were collected monthly. Invertebrates samples were sorted from the soil with two methods, direct method to isolate large invertebrates and indirectly to isolate small invertebrates using wet funnel method. The study also included the determination of physical and chemical factors of the soil (Temperature, Salinity, pH, Organic matter, Humidity, In addition to the soil texture). Monthly fluctuations in physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and the total invertebrates community study site were determined. Significant correlations the of the invertebrates community and each of temperature, organic matter, and humidity were observed. The study revealed that the temperature of the soil ranged between 5 to 25 C0 , The salinity concentration ranged between 1.1-1.9 ‰, The pH values ranged between 7.3 to 7.8 and the percentage of soil moisture ranged between 15 - 25% , Soil samples were composed of 44.6 % Clay, 19.7% Silt and 35.5% Sand. A total of 4625 individuals of soil invertebrates belonging to 16 taxa were sorted , within which the adult and larval insects were the most abundant, and from them 1283 individuals were sorted , represented 28% of the total numbers, followed by Isopoda , which 1030 individuals of them were sorted, In addition to Nematode, Oligochaetes Annelids family Enchytraeidae, and Earthworms family Lumbricida, Species of Chilopoda, Diplopoda, mites, land snails and slugs. The highest total individual number were recorded recorded durim moderate temperature months, February, March and April amounted to 838, 801 and 813 individuals, respectively. A significant correlation was mated between total number of soil invertebrates and each of temperature, organic matter and humidity. The significant difference in means was calculated according to LSD test.


Article
Microbial Contamination of Infant Milk Formula in Local Markets
التلوث الميكروبي لمساحيق حليب الاطفال في الاسواق المحلية

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This study is conducted to identify the microbial content of some types of infant milk formula available in the local markets of the city of Baghdad and their conformity microbial limits sited by the Iraqi standard. Seventy samples were collected from trademarks of imported infant milk formula included of five samples of infant milk formula No (1) and five samples of follow-up formula No (2). These samples were collected randomly from shops in the local markets of Baghdad city on both sides of Karkh and Rusafa included the following kinds: Dialac 1, Dialac 2 ,Celia 1, Celia 2 ,Biomil 1, Biomil 2 , Nactalia 1, Nactalia 2, Novalac 1 , Novalac 2 , Similac 1 , imilac 2 , Guigos 1, Guigos 2. Some microbial tests were done which included estimating the number of Total Plate Count bacteria, Coliform bacteria, Salmonella bacteria, Staphylococcus bacteria and Molds,Yeasts . The results show there is no any type of Coliform and Salmonella bacteria in infant milk; While high number of total plate count bacteria, Staphylococcus bacteria,Yeasts and Molds are showed in all kinds of formula, therefore do not exceed the microbiological limits of Iraqi standards(IQS) for good quality infant milk powder, with except the trademark Dialac1, Dialac 2 .


Article
Biological and physiological effects of Coriandrum sativum on House fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)
التأثيرات الحياتية والفسلجية لمسحوق وزيت نبات الكزبرة Coriandrum sativum في الذبابة المنزلية Musca domestica L. (Diptera :Muscidae )

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This Study is conducted to evaluate effects of (leaves, fruits) powder and (oil, alcohol) extract of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) plant on some biological and physiological aspects of House fly, Musca domestica at laboratory conditions. Result show that these preparations caused biological effects represented in high dead percentage in second instar, fed on different concentrations of food treated with them reached to 27.6, 55.3 at concentration 20% of leaf and fruit powder respectively and 67.3, 77.2% at 10% of oil and alcohol extract of fruit, respectively. Furthermore, study also show reduction in pupation and adults emergence percentage. However, leafs powder had slighter effect than powder and extract of fruit of tested plant. The study show physiological effects in treated larvae such as molting failure at subsequent molt to larvae , pupa or to adult, also morphological aberration represented in small size, dark pigment, reduce age and folding of the adult wings. In almost cases, the higher concentration the more morphogenetic aberration. This study leads us to conclude that coriander had chemical compounds which played a negative role in some biological and physiological aspects of house fly.


Article
Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Al-Rusafah Regions of Baghdad governarate
انتشار داء البلهارزيا البولية Urinary Schistosomiasis بين سكان مناطق الرصافة من محافظة بغداد

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Urinary Schistosomiasis is one of important diseases that cause irritation and damage of urinary tract and other systems and tissues and can not be expected by doctors when diagnosing urinary tract diseases.The current study is conducted to investigate the prevalence of schistosomiasisin Baghdad / Al-Rusafa. 191urine samples were collected fromresidents ofsome areas of Al-Rusafain Baghdad governarate (Almashtal, Albaladyat, Alameen, Baghdad aljadida and Alnahrawan) for the period from March until the end of September 2010.The samples were examined by the precipitation and examination of micro hematuria by reagent strips. The total infection percentage was 9.42% (18/191) and was significantly higher in males compared tofemales12.64% (11/87), 6.73% (7/104) respectivly, and in ages <18 years16.07% (11/56) compared to other age groups and a highest infection rate was in May14.71% (5/34) and April 11.54% (3/26). Infection rate was significantly the highest in the area of Albaladyat13.89% (5/36) followed by Alameen11.27% (8/71) .There was no significant difference observed between the infection ratio recorded by each of the examination by sedimentation 9.42% and reagent strips9%.


Article
Comparison Between Conventional and Microwave Methods For Extraction Pectin and Degree of Esterification from Orange (Citrus sinesis) and Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) Peels
مقارنة في استخلاص البكتين ودرجة ألأسترة بطريقتي الموجات الدقيقة والطريقة التقليدية من قشور البرتقال والكريب فروت

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In this study Microwave and conventional methods have been used to extract and estimate pectin and its degree of esterification from dried grapefruit and orange peels. Acidified solution water with nitric acid in pH (1.5) was used. In conventional method, different temperature degrees for extraction pectin from grape fruit and orange(85 ,90 , 95 and 100˚C) for 1 h were used The results showed grapefruit peels contained 12.82, 17.05, 18.47, 15.89% respectively, while the corresponding values were 5.96, 6.74, 7.41 and 8.00 %, respectively in orange peels. In microwave method, times were 90, 100, 110 and 120 seconds. Grapefruit peels contain 13.86, 16.57, 18.69, and 17.87%, respectively, while the corresponding values were of 6.53, 6.68, 7.28 and 9.05 %, respectively in orange peels. The degree of esterification increased gradually in both methods. The maximum values were of 69.7% in orange and of 67% in grapefruit at 95 °C in conventional method, while microwave method the values gave 68.8% and 66.6% for orange and grape fruit pectin at 110 sec, respectively .


Article
IL-17 in Protective Immunity to Vaginal Candidiasis
في الحصانة الواقية لداء المبيضات المهبلي IL-17 السايتوكين

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Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is caused by Candida albicans affects a significant number of women during their reproductive ages. Th17 cells play a major role in coordinating the host defense in oropharyngeal candidiasis. In this study we investigated the involvement of the Th17 response in an animal model of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The present study aimed to shed light on detect concentration of the IL-17 of infected animal and control . A direct Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to quantify IL-17 concentrations in 30 infected animal with VVC and 10 control group. Rats were intravaginally inoculated with C.albicans, and vaginal lavage fluids, serum were evaluated for proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 The data suggest that IL-17, produced by vaginal cells, particularly CD4 T cells, detected in the vaginal wash and serum during the infection, reaching a maximum 14 days after the challenge.


Article
Association of Glutathione–S-Transferase (GSTP1) Genetic Polymorphism in Iraqi Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type2
العلاقه بين تعدد النمط الوراثي للجين (GSTP1) ومرض السكري النوع الثاني لمرضى عراقيين

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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes that included, in a more range of detoxifying reactions by conjugation of glutathione, to electrophilic material. Polymorphisms n the genes that responsible of GSTs affect, the function of the GSTs. GSTs play an active role in protection of cell against oxidative stress mechanism. Polymorphisms of GSTP1 at codon 105 amino acids forms GSTP1 important site for bind of hydrophobic electrophiles and the substitution of Ile/Val affect substrate specially catalytic activity of the enzyme and may correlate with reach to different diseases in human like diabetes mellitus type2 disease. Correlation between these polymorphisms and changes in the parameters file of diabetic patients has also been found, therefore, the results variation considerably among the studies; therefore, these control study was designed to leading to detecting know, as there are no studies on this performed in the people of Iraq. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to study GSTP1genetic polymorphism in 60 T2DM patients and 50 healthy individuals. Our results showed that presence of the GSTP1 heterozygous mutant allele Ile/Val was more common in subjects with T2DM than in the control group (40.00% and 32.00%, respectively; p = 0.01), as well as the found of the homozygous mutant of GSTP1 allele Val/Val was common in T2DM patient and not found in the control group (3.33% and 0.00%, respectively; p = 0.001).GSTP1 genotypes do not have an effect on blood lipids after infection with diabetes mellitus. Agarose gels used to determined genotypes according to the bands were that appeared in electrophoresis of gel.


Article
The Protective Effect of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Seeds Against the Oxidative Stress Induced by Sodium Nitrite in Male Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
التاثير الواقي لبذور الفجل (Raphanus sativus) ضد الاجهاد التاكسدي المستحدث بواسطة نتريت الصوديوم في ذكور الارانب (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

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The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed alcoholic extract 70% against oxidative stress induced by sodium nitrite NaNO2 Twenty five adult male rabbits were devided into five groups of (five rabbits in each group) and treated daily for 30 days. Group T1: intubated orally 20 mg/kg NaNO2, Group T2: intubated orally 20 mg/kg NaNO2 + 50 mg/kg of alcoholic extract from Raphanus sativus seeds, Group T3: intubated orally 20 mg/kg NaNO2 + 100 mg/kg of alcoholic extract from Raphanus sativus seeds, Group T4: intubated orally 20 mg/kg NaNO2 + 200 mg/kg of alcoholic extract from Raphanus sativus seed as well as Group C: control intubated orally distilled water. In comparison with normal rabbits there were significantly increase in the level of Methemoglobin (MetHb%) , lipid peroxidation indicator malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly decrease in the level of glutathione (GSH) in the rabbits intubated NaNO2. In rabbits intubated NaNO2 + 50,100,200 mg/kg of alcoholic extract it was found there were significant decreased in the level of MetHb%, MDA, and increase in the level of GSH. In conclusion according to results obtained from this study approved that alcoholic extract of Raphanus sativus seeds in dose (50,100,200 mg/kg) have protective effect against oxidative stress induced by sodium nitrite in male rabbits.


Article
Molecular Identification of Rhizosphere Trichoderma spp. and Their Antagonistic Impact Against Some Plant Pathogenic Fungi
التشخيص الجزيئي للترايكوديرما المعزولة من التربة المحيطة بالجذور وفعلها التضادي تجاه بعض الفطريات الممرضة للنبات

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The main aim of this study was to molecular identification and determine the antagonistic impact of rhizosphere Trichoderma spp. against some phytopathogenic fungi, including (Magnaporthe grisea) pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phasolina. Four Trichoderma isolates were isolated from rhizosphere soils of the different host plants in different locations of Egyptian governorates. The morphological characterization of isolated Trichoderma as well as using of (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) ribosomal gene sequence acquisition and data analyses. By comparing the results of DNA sequences of ITS region, the fungi represented one isolate were positively identified as T. asperellum (1 isolate T1) and one as T. longibrachiatum (1 isolate T2) and two as Trichoderma harzianum (2 isolates T3 and T4). The results showed similarity value of (5.8S-ITS) region sequence of the two isolates, T1 (T. asperellum) and T2 (T. longibrachiatum) of (99%, 99%), respectively. The similarity value of (5.8S-ITS) region sequence with isolates of T3, T4 (T. harzianum) of (99%). On the other side, the results of molecular identification of phytopathogenic fungi represented high similarity value of (5.8S-ITS) region sequence and were identified as P.oryzae, R. solani and M. phasolina (99, 96 and 99%) respectively. Variations and genetic relationships among 4 Trichoderma isolates were investigated by using the Rapid Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles using ten random primers. All Trichoderma isolates were assessed for their antagonistic impact on phytopathogens P. oryzae, R. solani and M. phasolina. Though T. harzianum isolates were more affects than T. longibrachiatum and T. asperellum isolates, the percent inhibitory effect among T. harzianum isolates were vary much (44.8 to 91.6%). The inhibitory effect of T. asperellum isolates ranged from 42.2 to (86.0%), while T. longibrachiatum exhibiting affect ranged between (47.5%) to (83.8%).


Article
Evaluating the Humoral Immunity and Interleukin 18 Receptor 1 in some Patients with Molluscum Contagiosum Infection
تقييم المناعة الخلطية والانترلوكين -18 المستقبل الاول لدى بعض المرضى المصابين بفيروس المليساء المعدية

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The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a dermatotropic poxvirus. The causative agent of molluscum contagiosum (MC) is nonlethal, common and worldwide. Additionally, little inflammation is associated with MC papules. The present study aims to evaluate the immune status of MC patients by measuring the level of immunoglobulins IgG and IgM by using the radial immune diffusion assay (RIA) and the level of interleukin 18 receptor 1 (IL-18R1) by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The study is conducted during November 2013 to April, 2014 in outpatient clinic of Baquba Teaching Hospital. There are 75 patients, diagnosed with clinical lesions of MCV on different areas of the body, whose age is ranged between 2-50 years including 40(53.3%) males and 35(46.7%) females. The study includes 15 healthy persons age between 2-50 years. The level of IL 18R1 were significantly elevated in patients (677.15±874.22) compared with control (178.46±31.79 ng/ml). There is also a significant elevation in the mean level of serum IgM, where it is 1946.6±825.6 mg/dl while in control group is 140.1±68.7mg/dl. By contrast in patients with lower levels of IgG than the control, the mean serum IgG level in patient is 221.9±96.7 mg/dl while in the control is 1229.9±299.7 mg/dl. Finally, there is no significant difference between MC patients from rural area and urban area.


Article
Assessment of Pro Hepcidin and Related with Iron Profile on Hemodialysis Men Patients
تقيييم البروهبسدين وعلاقته مع مجال الحديد في الرجال ا لمرضى الخاضعين للغسيل الكلوي

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Patients with renal failure in the final stages undergo the treatment by hemodialysis. Hemodialysis is used to reinstate the intracellular and extracellular fluid environment, by propagation of molecules in solution through a semipermeable membrane along an electrochemical concentration gradient. Blood catching in the dialysis machine and the recurrent phlebotomy may lead to losing about 1-3 g of iron per year. Prohepcidin hormone is an acute phase protein (type II) that plays a major role in the systemic iron irregularities as it is a mediator of anemia in inflammation and regulator of iron metabolism. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hemodialysis on iron hemostasis and its relationship with prohepcidin as an inflammatory marker. This study includes forty four adult male patients with end-stage renal failure (in pre and post –treated) by means of chronic hemodialysis-HD with mean age (53.27 ± 13.76 years). The following biochemical investigations have been studied: Prohepcidin, Iron, Ferritin, Transferrin, Total Iron-Binding Capacity (TIBC), The Unsaturated Total Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC), and transferrin saturation (TAST).Decrement of Prohepcidin level on hemodialysis patients in post dialysis with non-significantly compared to pre dialysis, while iron and ferritin was increment in post treated than pre- treated with non-significantly. Hemodialysis affects Prohepcidin levels as it was long duration and Glomerular Filtration rate GFR (cock croft equation) and prohepcidin level affect the iron profile related with the iron store depletion.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Benzimidazole Derivatives
تحضير وتشخيص بعض المشتقات الجديدة من البنزايميدازول

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In this paper the new starting material 2-(5-chloro-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-yl) aniline (1) was synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-chloro-o-phenylenediamine and anthranilic acid .The new Mannich base derivatives were synthesized using formaldehyde and different secondary amines to synthesize a new set of benzimidazole derivatives(2-5). Also, the new Schiff-base derivatives (6-10) were synthesized from the reaction of compound (1) with various aromatic aldehydes and the closure-ring was done successfully using mercapto acetic acid to get the new thiazolidine derivatives(11-12).These new compounds were characterized using some physical techniques like:FT-IR Spectra and 1HNMR Spectra.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of 3 - Substituted Coumarin
تحضير وتشخيص مشتقات بالتعويض على - 3 للكيومارين

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The reaction of(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-Carbonyl chloride)(k1) with hydrazine in boiling ethanol gives the hydrazide(K2).When compound (k2) reacts with various aromatic aldehydes ,the corres ponding Schiff bases(k3–k4) achieve new series of thiazotidines (k5–k6) and azetidinones (k7–k8) obtained from the reactions of appropriate Schiff bases with mercapto acetic acid and chloro acetyl chloride respectively. All the compounds are characterized by FT-IR,1H-NMR and GC-Ms.


Article
Addition of Some Primary and Secondary Amines to Graphene Oxide, and Studying Their Effect on Increasing its Electrical Properties
إضافة بعض الأمينات الأولية والثانوية لأوكسيد الجرافين ودراسة تأثيرها على زيادة خصائصه الكهربائية

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Previously many properties of graphene oxide in the field of medicine, biological environment and in the field of energy have been studied. This diversity in properties is due to the possibility of modification on the composition of this Nano compound, where the Graphene oxide is capable of more modification via addition other functional groups on its surface or at the edges of the sheet. The reason for this modification possibility is that the Sp3 hybridization (tetrahedral structure) of the carbon atoms in graphene oxide, and it contains many oxygenic functional groups that are able to reac with other groups. In this research the effect of addition of some amine compounds on electrical properties of graphene oxide has been studied by the preparation of graphene oxide - amino containing compound, which could be classified under Nano carbon compounds containing nitrogen (N-doped carbon nanomaterials). These amines are used as expanders for the distance between the layers of graphene oxide (spacers), and thus prevent agglomeration of graphene oxide layers in addition to enhanced electric properties of graphene oxide. The following amines (thiocarbohydrazide(TCH),o-phenylenediamine(oPD) and poly aniline(PAni)) were used for the preparation of the corresponding amino graphene oxide (GO-TCH, GO-containing Benzoimidazol & benzoxazole, and GO-PAni), and characterized by X-RAY diffraction (XRD) ,infra red spectrum (FTIR) and atomic force microscope (AFM) , also the electrical properties of these materials were studied using inductance, capacitance, and resistance ( LCR) measurements.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Metals Complexes of [N-(4-Nitrobenzoyl Amino)-Thioxomethyl] Phenylalanine
تحضير وتشخيص بعض المعقدات الفلزية الجديدة مع [N- (4- نايتروبنزويل امينو- ثايواوكسومثيل)] فنيل الانين

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A new ligand [N-(4-nitrobenzoylamino)-thioxomethyl] phenylalanine is synthesized by reaction of 4-nitrobenzoyl isothiocyanate with phenylalanine (1:1). It is characterized by micro elemental analysis (C.H.N.S.), FT-IR, (UV-Vis) and 1H and 13CNMR spectra. Some metals ions complexes of this ligand were prepared and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Visible spectra, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility and atomic absorption. From results obtained, the following formula [M(NBA)2] where M2+ = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd, Cd and Hg, the proposed molecular structure for these complexes as tetrahedral geometry, except copper and palladium complexes are have square planer geometry.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Azo Dyes Derivatives Via Chalcone and Study Some of Their Biological Activity
تحضير و تشخيص بعض مشتقات جديدة لأصباغ الآزو من جالكون و دراسة بعض الفعالية البيولوجية لهم

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This work includes synthesis of new six membered heterocyclic rings with effective amino group using the reaction of benzylideneacetophenone (chalcone) (1) with thiourea or urea in alcoholic basic medium to form: 1,3-thiazen-2-amine (2), and 1,3-oxazin-2-amine (8) respectively. The diazotization reaction was carried out with sodium nitrite in presence of hydrochloric acid to form diazonium salts which suffered coupling reaction with naphthols and phenols in the presence of sodium hydroxide to form colored azo dyes (4-7, and 10-13). o-methylation reaction of compounds (7) and (10) yielded : 1,3-thiazin -2-yl-diazenyl (14), and 1,3-oxazin-2-yl-diazenyl (15) respectively. The new compounds were characterized using various physical techniques like: UV-Vis., FT-IR, and 1HNMR spectra. Some new compounds were tested against bacteria.


Article
Isolation and Purification of a Cyclooxygenase-2 from the Blood of a Patient Suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis and Studying the Effect of Natural Products of the Soapwort on the Activity of Purified Enzyme
عزل وتنقية انزيم السايكلوكسي جينيز-2 من دم مريض يعاني التهاب المفاصل الرثوي ودراسة تأثير النواتج الطبيعية لنبات العصلج على فعالية الانزيم المنقى

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In this paper to isolate and study the properties of the cyclooxygenase-2 (EC: 1.14.99.1) enzyme in the blood of a patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and study the effect of natural products of the Soapwort on the activity of purified enzyme. The study involves taking 30 ml of blood from an adult woman 40 years old, who suffers from rheumatoid arthritis disease for 13 years. Serum is separated and subjected to a series of purification processes including: precipitation by ammonium sulfate, filtration by centrifugation radiator, dialysis in presence of ammonium bicarbonate, separation using the technology of ion exchange, lipholization and then estimating approximate molecular weight of the enzyme using gel filtration technique and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-page polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The study also includes isolating the natural products of Soapwort plant and study the effect of isolated natural products on the activity of the purified enzyme. The result of the study indicates that cycloxygenase-2 has an approximate molecular weight of 71.5 kDa and that the extracted oil of the Soapwort has a negative impact on the activity of the enzyme (r= -0.824; P=0.006), while flavonoids and Saponin have no such impact (r= -0.565; P=0.113; r= -0.634; P=0.067 respectively).


Article
The Nuclear Structure for Exotic Neutron-Rich of 42, 43, 45,47K Nuclei
التركيب النووي للنوى الغريبة الغنية- بالنيوترونات لـ 42,43, 45,47K

Authors: Ban S. Hameed بان صباح حميد
Pages: 146-154
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In this paper the proton, neutron and matter density distributions and the corresponding root mean square (rms) radii of the ground states and the elastic magnetic electron scattering form factors and the magnetic dipole moments have been calculated for exotic nucleus of potassium isotopes K (A= 42, 43, 45, 47) based on the shell model using effective W0 interaction. The single-particle wave functions of harmonic-oscillator (HO) potential are used with the oscillator parameters b. According to this interaction, the valence nucleons are asummed to move in the d3f7 model space. The elastic magnetic electron scattering of the exotic nuclei 42K (JπT= 2- 2), 43K(JπT=3/2+ 5/2), 45K (JπT= 3/2+ 7/2) and 47K (JπT= 1/2+ 9/2) investigated through Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA). The inclusion of core polarization effect through the effective g-factors is adequate to obtain a good agreement between the predicted and the measured magnetic dipole moments.


Article
Geomorphological Mapping of Razzaza–Habbaria Area using Remote Sensing Techniques
الخرائط الجيومورفولوجية لمنطقة الرزازة-هبارية باستخدام تقانات التحسس النائي

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Landforms on the earth surface are so expensive to map or monitor. Remote Sensing observations from space platforms provide a synoptic view of terrain on images. Satellite multispectral data have an advantage in that the image data in various bands can be subjected to digital enhancement techniques for highlighting contrasts in objects for improving image interpretability. Geomorphological mapping involves the partitioning of the terrain into conceptual spatial entities based upon criteria. This paper illustrates how geomorphometry and mapping approaches can be used to produce geomorphological information related to the land surface, landforms and geomorphic systems. Remote Sensing application at Razzaza–Habbaria area southwest of Razzaza Lake shows the different geomorphologic units and the land use maps that were delineated from Landsat ETM+ Image. Digital Image unsupervised classification was adopted to delineate the different classes by applying ERDAS 8.4 software. According to this classification five classes were selected and delineated in different colors.


Article
Electronic Structure of Copper Antimony Using Compton Scattering Technique
دراسة التركيب الالكتروني لمركب Cu2Sb باستخدام تقنية استطارة كومبتون

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In this paper we present the first ever measured experimental electron momentum density of Cu2Sb at an intermediate resolution (0.6 a.u.) using 59.54 keV 241Am Compton spectrometer. The measurements are compared with the theoretical Compton profiles using density function theory (DFT) within a linear combination of an atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. In DFT calculation, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) scheme is employed to treat correlation whereas exchange is included by following the Becke scheme. It is seen that various approximations within LCAO-DFT show relatively better agreement with the experimental Compton data. Ionic model calculations for a number of configurations (Cu+x/2)2(Sb-x) (0.0≤x≤2.0) are also performed utilizing free atom profiles, the ionic model suggests transfer of 2.0 electrons per Cu atom from 4s state to 5p state of Sb.


Article
Investigation of the dielectric Properties of (PPAB) terminated by phenylenediamine doped by Na2[Fe(CN)5.NO].2H2O using Lumped equivalent circuit
دراسة الخواص العازلية للبوليمر(PPAB) ذي النهاية الطرفية ثنائي أمين فنيلين المشوب ب Na2[Fe(CN)5.NO].2H2O باستخدام الدائرة المكافئة التحملية

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the effect of Na2[Fe(CN)5.NO].2H2O impurity (0.1 M) concentration on the dielectrical properties of poly (P-Aminobenzaldehyde) terminated by pheneylenediamine in the frequency and temperature ranges (1-100)KHz and (283-348) K respectively. These properties include dissipation factor, series and parallel resistance, series and parallel capacitance, real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant, a.c conductivity and impedance (real and imaginary) part, that have been deduced from equivalent circuit. The investigation shows that adding Na2[Fe(CN)5.NO].2H2O as additive to the polymer lead to increase of the dielectric constant with increasing temperature and it is decreasing with increasing the frequency .The dissipation factor is increasing with as the frequency increased.


Article
Indirect Method for Optimal Control Problem Using Boubaker Polynomial
طريقة غير مباشرة لمسألة سيطرة مثلى باستخدام متعددة حدود بوبكر

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Abstract

In this paper, a computational method for solving optimal problem is presented, using indirect method (spectral methodtechnique) which is based on Boubaker polynomial. By this method the state and the adjoint variables are approximated by Boubaker polynomial with unknown coefficients, thus an optimal control problem is transformed to algebraic equations which can be solved easily, and then the numerical value of the performance index is obtained. Also the operational matrices of differentiation and integration have been deduced for the same polynomial to help solving the problems easier. A numerical example was given to show the applicability and efficiency of the method. Some characteristics of this polynomial which can be used for solving optimal control problems have been deduced and studied for any future work.


Article
A Note on the Perturbation of arithmetic expressions
ملاحظات على التعابير الرياضياتية القلقة

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Abstract

In this paper we present the theoretical foundation of forward error analysis of numerical algorithms under; • Approximations in "built-in" functions. • Rounding errors in arithmetic floating-point operations. • Perturbations of data. The error analysis is based on linearization method. The fundamental tools of the forward error analysis are system of linear absolute and relative a prior and a posteriori error equations and associated condition numbers constituting optimal of possible cumulative round – off errors. The condition numbers enable simple general, quantitative bounds definitions of numerical stability. The theoretical results have been applied a Gaussian elimination, and have proved to be very effective means of both a priori and a posteriori error analysis.


Article
On (σ,τ)-Derivations and Commutativity of Prime and Semi prime Γ-rings
حول الاشتقاقات - (,)والابدالية على الحلقات الأولية وشبه الاولية من النمط -

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Abstract

Let R be a Г-ring, and σ, τ be two automorphisms of R. An additive mapping d from a Γ-ring R into itself is called a (σ,τ)-derivation on R if d(aαb) = d(a)α σ(b) + τ(a)αd(b), holds for all a,b ∈R and α∈Γ. d is called strong commutativity preserving (SCP) on R if [d(a), d(b)]α = [a,b]_α^((σ,τ) ) holds for all a,b∈R and α∈Γ. In this paper, we investigate the commutativity of R by the strong commutativity preserving (σ,τ)-derivation d satisfied some properties, when R is prime and semi prime Г-ring.


Article
The Impact of Operating System on Bandwidth in Open VPN Technology
تأثير نظام التشغيل على حزمة البيانات بأستخدام تكنولوجيا (Open VPN)

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Abstract

The internet is a basic source of information for many specialities and uses. Such information includes sensitive data whose retrieval has been one of the basic functions of the internet. In order to protect the information from falling into the hands of an intruder, a VPN has been established. Through VPN, data privacy and security can be provided. Two main technologies of VPN are to be discussed; IPSec and Open VPN. The complexity of IPSec makes the OpenVPN the best due to the latter’s portability and flexibility to use in many operating systems. In the LAN, VPN can be implemented through Open VPN to establish a double privacy layer(privacy inside privacy). The specific subnet will be used in this paper. The key and certificate will be generated by the server. An authentication and key exchange will be based on standard protocol SSL/TLS. Various operating systems from open source and windows will be used. Each operating system uses a different hardware specification. Tools such as tcpdump and jperf will be used to verify and measure the connectivity and performance. OpenVPN in the LAN is based on the type of operating system, portability and straightforward implementation. The bandwidth which is captured in this experiment is influenced by the operating system rather than the memory and capacity of the hard disk. Relationship and interoperability between each peer and server will be discussed. At the same time privacy for the user in the LAN can be introduced with a minimum specification.

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