Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:22 issue:3

Article
Some Mechanical Properties of Concrete by using Manufactured Blended Cement with Grinded Local Rocks
بعض الخواص الميكانيكية للخرسانة الحاوية على سمنت مخلوط مع مطحون صخور محلية

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Abstract

The use of blended cement in concrete provides economic, energy savings, and ecological benefits, and also provides. Improvement in the properties of materials incorporating blended cements. The major aim of this investigation is to develop blended cement technology using grinded local rocks . The research includes information on constituent materials, manufacturing processes and performance characteristics of blended cements made with replacement (10 and 20) % of grinded local rocks (limestone, quartzite and porcelinite) from cement. The main conclusion of this study was that all types of manufactured blended cement conformed to the specification according to ASTM C595-12 (chemical and physical requirements). The percentage of the compressive strength for blended cement with 10% replacement are (20, 11 and 5) % , (2 , 12 and, 13) % and (18, 15 and 16) % for limestone , quartzite and porcelinite respectively at (7,28 and 90)days for each compare to the reference mix, while blended cement with 20% replacement are (-3, -5 and -11) ,(6, -4% and -5) and (6, 4 and 6) % for limestone , quartzite and porcelinite respectively at (7, 28 and 90)days compare to the reference mix .The other mechanical properties (flexural tensile strength and splitting tensile strength) are the same phenomena of increase and decrease in compressive strength. The results indicated that the manufacture Portland-limestone cement, Portland-quartzite cement and Portland-porcelinite cement with 10% replacement of cement with improvable mechanical properties while the manufacture Portland-porcelinite cement with 20% replacement of cement with slight improvable mechanical properties and more economical cost.


Article
Constructional Efficiency in Al_Ahwaar Traditional Architecture
الكفاءة الإنشائية في عمارة الاهوار التقليدية

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Abstract

Constructional Efficiency in architecture in general is one of the most important standard success for any structure and a measure of its continuity and relevance across time and space. Given the importance of Al-Ahwaar environment that owned the spatial, environmental, economic and social elements had a prominent impact in creation of architecture patterns form to create special architectural and structural environment, which had many qualities and ingredients that contributed to its continuity and existence over the years. From the premise that man and his environment is the main goal to any architectural style, Thus the research problem focusing on the lack of clarity of the previous literatures in its studies for the role of architectural styles in Al-Ahwaar in achieving constructional efficiency, despite the large number of studies on Al-Ahwaar architecture but it is mostly marked by non-clarity and lack in the constructional and technical aspects, Therefore, the research goal focusing on clarification of the impact of the techniques that used in formations Al_Ahwaar traditional architecture in order to reach to the constructional efficiency in various aspects such as technical, material, economical, and expressional. Assuming that achieving to the constructional efficiency at Al-Ahwaar traditional architecture depends on its characteristics and elements that contributed to the continuity of their patterns across time. The research depended on analytical method of a model of traditional architecture in Al-Ahwaar to reach those goals, as the study of these items aims to deepen the understanding of the designer to the requirements of each component in order to achieve integration together. These components must not conflict with each other, but it must be integrated during and after the design process until it comes out as a creative of architectural destination.


Article
A reformation Study about the Construction Management in the Primary Stage Curricula’s for the Civil Engineering in Some of the Iraqi Universities
دراسة تقويمية لمواضيع الادارة الانشائية في مناهج المرحلة الأولية للهندسة المدنية في بعض الجامعات العراقية

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Abstract

There is no doubt that the field of education and teaching (in any country and whatever its ruling system varies “d”) is considered one of the most specific and sensitive field, because it is related to the building of human. And as the human is a purpose (aim) and the means in the same time and he is the strategist capital, so he way of his rearing, education, choosing the educator, methods of working and the aims are considered serious matters. The educational process has aim determined by the society for him self through its working establishments in this field and these are the official and public establishments. And as he feels that the establishments have failed to achieve its duty, it, and without hesitation immediately interferes by the means that he choose to fix the defect. The educational process aims are meant to be the determined modification for the way which are expected to change the students through this process .i,e. the way of their thinking, feeling and actions. And the curricula’s used (followed) are considered one of the means to achieve the aims. This research aims at studying the program of the construction management wherefrom the items are distributed although the years and hours of primary stage in the civil engineering department in Baghdad university and some other Iraqi universities. The curricula’s items of some sedate worldwide (universal) universities, and to make a comparison between them to reach a specific form to the method of teaching these items, unify them, revive them and to contribute in clarifying the features of the path way ahead of a teaching Corp member which is followed in the teaching curricula’s of the construction on the means which make achieving this complicated process a living interactive system.

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Article
Prediction of Raw Water Turbidity at the Intakes of the Water Treatment Plants along Tigris River in Baghdad, Iraq using Frequency Analysis
التنبؤ بعكورة الماء الخام عند مآخذ محطات تصفية الماء على طول نهردجلة في بغداد، العراق باستخدام التحليل التكراري

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Abstract

Different frequency distributions models were fitted to the monthly data of raw water Turbidity at water treatment plants (WTPs) along Tigris River in Baghdad. Eight water treatment plants in Baghdad were selected, with raw water turbidity data for the period (2008-2014). The frequency distribution models used in this study are the Normal, Log-normal, Weibull, Exponential and two parameters Gamma type. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. The data for years (2008-2011) were used for building the models. The best fitted distributions were Log-Normal (LN) for Al-Karkh, Al-Wathbah, Al-Qadisiya, Al-Dawrah and, Al-Rashid WTPs. Gamma distribution fitted well for East Tigris and Al-Karamah WTPs. As for Al-Wehda WTP Weibull distributions, was the best model. The best fitted distributions were used to forecast ten sets of monthly data for each plant that were compared with the observed data for years (2012-2014). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test results indicated the capability of these models to produce data that has the same frequency distribution of the observed data. Moreover the frequency of occurrence of the observed and generated series in each plant indicated the capability of the model to produce results with frequency occurrence of probabilities of turbidity values > 50, 80, 100, 120, and 150 NTU.


Article
The Catalytic Activity of Modified Zeolite Lanthanum on the Catalytic Cracking of Al-Duara Atmospheric Distillation Residue.
تأثيرالفعليه الحفازيه للزيولايت المطور باللنثانيوم على التكسير الحفازي لمتبقي التقطير الجوي لمصفى الدوره

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Abstract

Atmospheric residue fluid catalytic cracking was selected as a probe reaction to test the catalytic performance of modified NaY zeolites and prepared NaY zeolites. Modified NaY zeolites have been synthesized by simple ion exchange methods. Three samples of modified zeolite Y have been obtained by replacing the sodium ions in the original sample with lanthanum and the weight percent added are 0.28, 0.53, and 1.02 respectively. The effects of addition of lanthanum to zeolite Y in different weight percent on the cracking catalysts were investigated using an experimental laboratory plant scale of fluidized bed reactor. The experiments have been performed with weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) range of 6 to 24 h-1, and the range of temperature from 450 to 510 oC. The activity of the catalyst with 1.02 wt% lanthanum has been shown to be much greater than that of the sample parent NaY. Also it was observed that the addition of the lanthanum causes an increase in the thermal stability of the zeolite.


Article
Semi-Batch Reactive Distillation of Consecutive Reaction : The Saponification Reaction of Diethyl Adipate with Sodium Hydroxide Solution
التقطير التفاعلي شبه ذوالدفعات لتفاعل متسلسل : صوبنة ثنائي أثيل أديبيت مع محلول هيدروكسيد الصوديوم

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Abstract

This research presents a new study in reactive distillation by using consecutive reaction: the saponification reaction of diethyl adipate (DA) with sodium hydroxide solution . The effect of three parameters were studied through a design of experiments applying 23 factorial design . These parameters were : the mole ratio of DA to NaOH solution (0.1 and 1) , NaOH solution concentration (3 N and 8 N) , and batch time (1.5 hr. and 3.5 hr.) . The conversion of DA to sodium monoethyladipate(SMA)(intermediate product) was the effect of these parameters which was detected . Also , the percentage purity of the intermediate product was recorded . The results showed that increasing mole ratio of DA to NaOHsolution increases the conversion and percentage purity to a maximum value within the range of study . The effect of NaOH solution concentration decreases the conversion and percentage purity to specified value within the range of study . The effect of batch time on conversion and percentage purity , when NaOH solution concentration (3 N) is as follows : the increasing in batch time decreases the conversion and percentage purity to specified value within the range of study . When NaOH solution concentration (8 N) increasing batch time decreases the conversion , while percentage purity increases with increasing batch time to a maximum value within the range of study . The maximum attainable conversion within the studied range of parameters was eighteen fold of the base case , while the maximum percentage purity was (99.40 %) . Empirical equation was obtained using statistical analysis of experimental results . The empirical results of relative conversion was drawn . The empirical graphs showed linear variation .


Article
Design and Simulation of Sliding Mode Fuzzy Controller for Nonlinear System
تصميم وتنفيذ مسيطرات النمط الأنزلاقي الضبابي لنظام لا خطي

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Abstract

Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) is a simple method and powerful technique to design a robust controller for nonlinear systems. It is an effective tool with acceptable performance. The major drawback is a classical Sliding Mode controller suffers from the chattering phenomenon which causes undesirable zigzag motion along the sliding surface. To overcome the snag of this classical approach, many methods were proposed and implemented. In this work, a Fuzzy controller was added to classical Sliding Mode controller in order to reduce the impact chattering problem. The new structure is called Sliding Mode Fuzzy controller (SMFC) which will also improve the properties and performance of the classical Sliding Mode controller. A single inverted pendulum has been utilized for testing the design of the proposed controller. Programming and Simulink by Matlab have been used for the simulation results.


Article
Energy Dissipation on the Ogee Spillways by Using Direction Diverting Blocks
تبديد الطاقة على المطافح نوع اوجي باستخدام كتل تغيير الاتجاه

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hydraulic performance and efficiency of using direction diverting blocks, DDBs, fixed on the surface on an Ogee spillway in reducing the acceleration and dissipating the energy of the incoming supercritical flow. Fifteen types of DDB models were made from wood with a triangulate shape and different sizes were used. Investigation tests on pressure distribution at the DDBs boundaries were curried out to insure there is no negative pressures is developed that cause cavitation. In these tests, thirty six test runs were accomplished by using six types of blocks with the same size but differ in apex angle. Results of these test showed no negative pressures developed at the boundaries of these blocks. A physical model for a part of Mandili Dam spillway system was constructed with a scale ratio of 1:50. Thirteen runs were carried out to obtain the rating curve of the ogee weir of Mandili Dam Model. Four hundred and seventy test runs were carried out to investigate the performance of the DDBs in reducing the energy of the flow. In these test runs, nine types of blocks with different sizes and different apex angles installed with different configurations on the spillway surface. Thirteen configurations of DDBs were tested. The Froude Number and the location of the hydraulic jump were used as indicators for the efficiency of these DDBs. Results indicated that when using the DDBs on a spillway surface, less Froude Number downstream the spillway is obtained and the hydraulic jump occurs at a much shorter distance from the spillway toe compared to same spillway without DDBs. Depending on the DDBs type, configuration, and the applied discharge, the obtained reduction in Froude Number varied between 4.4 to 19.3% and the reduction in the hydraulic jump distance measured from the spillway toe varied between 54% and 76% compared with that of the standard design of Mandili Dam.


Article
Analysis of Recorded Inflow Data of Ataturk Reservoir
تحليل معلومات الجريان الداخل الى خزان أتاترك

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Abstract

Since the beginning of the last century, the competition for water resources has intensified dramatically, especially between countries that have no agreements in place for water resources that they share. Such is the situation with the Euphrates River which flows through three countries (Turkey, Syria, and Iraq) and represents the main water resource for these countries. Therefore, the comprehensive hydrologic investigation needed to derive optimal operations requires reliable forecasts. This study aims to analysis and create a forecasting model for data generation from Turkey perspective by using the recorded inflow data of Ataturk reservoir for the period (Oct. 1961 - Sep. 2009). Based on 49 years of real inflow data from the Euphrates River recorded at Ataturk, a spilt-sample approach was adopted for testing homogeneity. The autoregressive model of order one [AR(1)] was found to be the best for the forecasting as it accurately reproduced the means, standard deviations, and skewness coefficients observed in the generated records forecast at the Ataturk reservoir. Ten sets of 100 years data have been forecasted. In Iraq, optimization of the operation of all reservoirs is necessary after operating new reservoirs in Turkey.


Article
Analytical and Numerical Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) of Standard and Modified Involute Profile Spur Gear
تحليل تلامس الأسنان نظرياً وعددياً للتروس الصماء التقليدية والمعدلة ذات الجانبية الالتفافية

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Abstract

Among all the common mechanical transmission elements, gears still playing the most dominant role especially in the heavy duty works offering extraordinary performance under extreme conditions and that the cause behind the extensive researches concentrating on the enhancement of its durability to do its job as well as possible. Contact stress distribution within the teeth domain is considered as one of the most effective parameters characterizing gear life, performance, efficiency, and application so that it has been well sought for formal gear profiles and paid a lot of attention for moderate tooth shapes. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of pressure angle, speed ratio, and correction factor on the maximum contact and bending stress value and principal stresses distribution for symmetric and asymmetric spur gear. The analytical investigation adopted Hertz equations to find the contact stress value, distribution, and the contact zone width while the numerical part depends on Ansys software version 15, as a FE solver with Lagrange and penalty contact algorithm. The most fruitful points to be noticed are that the increasing of pressure angle and speed ratio trends to minimize all the induced stresses for the classical gears and the altered teeth shape with larger loaded side pressure angle than the unloaded side one behave better than the symmetric teeth concerning the stress reduction.


Article
Critical Success Factors in Construction Projects (Governmental Projects as a Case Study)
عوامل النجاح الحرجة في المشاريع الانشائية ( المشاريع الحكومية حالة دراسية )

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Abstract

The importance of the construction sector and its Great role in the provision of services and infrastructure, reduce poverty, improve living conditions and improve the economic situation in the country, impose attention to the way in which the projects implemented for its improvement and to get successful projects. The objective of this research was to determine the criteria for success as well as critical success and failure factors that have a significant impact on project success. A selected 75 engineer (department managers, project managers and engineers) are asked to fill the questionnaire form, Sixty-seven valid questionnaire forms were analyzed statistically to get search results, which were as follows : Twelve critical success factors, the most important factors of it were ("contractor financial efficiency ", " security ,political , economic stability ", "the project manager competence" and " Integration and clarity of contract documents ") , thirteen critical failure factors, the most important factors of it were ("corruption " , " external circumstances ", "Financial difficulties of owner)", and ten success criteria , the most important criteria of it were ("within allocated budget" , " within time period" , "Quality" ).


Article
Dynamic Stability Analysis and Critical Speed of Rotor supported by a Worn Fluid film Journal Bearings
تحليل الاستقرارية الديناميكية والسرعة الحرجة لدوار مسنود بواسطة كراسي تحميل متآكلة

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In this paper, the effect of wear in the fluid film journal bearings on the dynamic stability of rotor bearing system has been studied depending on the development of new analytical equations for motion, instability threshold speed and steady state harmonic response for rotor with offset disc supported by worn journal bearings. Finite element method had been used for modeling the rotor bearing system. The analytical model is verified by comparing its results with that obtained numerically for a rotor supported on the short bearings. The analytical and numerical results showed good agreement with about 8.5% percentage error in the value of critical speed and about 3.5% percentage error in the value of harmonic response. The results obtained show that the wear in journal bearing decrease the instability threshold speed by 2.5% for wear depth 0.02 mm and 12.5% for wear depth 0.04 mm as well as decrease critical speed by 4.2% and steady state harmonic response amplitude by 4.3% for wear depth 0.02 mm and decrease the critical speed by 7.1% and steady state harmonic response amplitude by 13.9% for wear depth 0.04 mm.

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