Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:22 issue:7

Article
Data Base for Dynamic Soil Properties of Seismic Active Zones in Iraq
قاعدة بيانات لخواص التربة الديناميكية لمناطق العراق ذات النشاط الزلزالي

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Abstract

Iraq is located near the northern tip of the Arabian plate, which is advancing northwards relative to the Eurasian plate, and is predictably, a tectonically active country. Seismic activity in Iraq increased significantly during the last decade. So structural and geotechnical engineers have been giving increasing attention to the design of buildings for earthquake resistance. Dynamic properties play a vital role in the design of structures subjected to seismic load. The main objective of this study is to prepare a data base for the dynamic properties of different soils in seismic active zones in Iraq using the results of cross hole and down hole tests. From the data base collected it has been observed that the average vertical compressional wave velocities were ranged from (1125-2500) m/s in the North, (306-1544) m/s in the Middle, (805-1812) m/s in the western south, (377-1326) m/s in the eastern south and (334-1404) m/s in the South of Iraq. And the average vertical shear wave velocities were ranged from (225-476) m/s in the North, (111-408) m/s in the Middle, (268-659) m/s in the western south, (131-380)m/s in the eastern south and (102-365) m/s in the South of Iraq.


Article
The Role of Informational Environment in Building Smart City
دور البيئة المعلوماتية في بناء المدينة الذكية

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Abstract

The research addresses smart city concept as it is the latest urban design trends, by the investment of the capabilities of human, and artificial intelligence for the sake of the advancement of the city. The concept of a smart city is described as one of the most important manifestations of the information revolution, with the end of the twentieth, and the beginning of twenty – first century, The research attributes the emergence of the concept to: deficiencies of means, and traditional methods in building and development of cities, as well as The significant increase in the number of city and global metropolises dwellers. So, smart city approach has been adopted, along with innovative principles and methods which consolidate the performance and efficiency of the city at services, health, economic, social, and environmental levels. Global studies indicate, to the urban contributions scarcity, in the area of smart city, so the need of vocabularies, elements, and innovative solutions studies have emerged and then the role of information’s in achieving the aim of smart city initiatives. The research problem is: The acknowledge gap about the impact of the informational environment, to establish smart city initiative. The research adopts the hypothesis: A multi-disciplinary informational thought plays an essential role in achieving smart city initiative. To address the research problem, the research starts with the definition of the concept of smart city, to provide the knowledge platform, then addresses the smart city approaches, as well as, smart urban environment, smart city structure, key elements and smart networks, to concludes key vocabulary, indicators and constituents of smart city establishment, Then applied to the case studies with analytical descriptive approach, to conclude the key constituents to establish smart city in Iraq. The research concluded to confirm the role of the informational thought, represented by global research institutions, and multinational Informational companies, at the level of thought and application, to achieve Smart City, with depending on principles of partnership, pluralism, and sustaining of city smartness, so the smart city is: the conclusion of thought and human knowledge.


Article
Identificatio n Of Key Factors Affecting Waste Management In Life Cycle Of The Construction Project By Using Delphi Technique
تحديد العوامل الرئيسة المؤثرة على ادارة المخلفات في دورة حياة المشروع الانشائي بأستخدام تقنية دلفي

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Abstract

The problem of generated waste as a result of the implementation of construction projects, has been aggravated recently because of construction activity experienced by the world, especially Iraq, which is going through a period of reconstruction, where construction waste represents (20-40%) of the total generated waste and has a negative effect on the environment and economic side of the project. In addition, the rate of consumpted amounts of natural resources are estimated to be about 40% in the construction industry, so it became necessary to reduce waste and to be manage well. This study aims to identify the key factors affecting waste management through the various phases of the project, and this is accomplished by using the Delphi technique. After conducting three questionnaire rounds of the Delphi to a group of experts, the results of this study identified forty four key factors affecting waste management distributed on the phases of the project, where found that the factor of frequent errors in the designs has the highest effect on the design phase, and the factor of the use of construction techniques that do not generate waste has highest effect on the construction phase. The purpose is to provide data base for decision-makers to control waste management well to avoid all affecting factors, with the possibility of building waste management system based on factors effective for each phase.


Article
Studying the Improvement of the Solubility of Cellulosic Fibers
دراسة تحسين ذوبانية الالياف السليلوزية

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Abstract

This study focuses for improving the increase the solubility of fiber cellulose in sodium hydroxide solution in concentrations ranging from (4- 12%), from one point of view and from other point of view in (sodium hydroxide and urea) solution concentration (6% NaOH + 4% urea), under low temperature (- 15, - 20 Co) , depending on the principle of reducing the degree of polymerization for fiber cellulose, which is represented in our tests cotton linter who its represent (Whatman filter paper, Grade 1), some samples subjected to chemical pretreatment as simulation the method of decomposition of cellulosic materials by white or brown fungi that grow on trees, this method involves the use of chemical materials, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) , oxalic acid C2H2O4 and ferrous sulfate FeSO4 to be reaction known ( Fenton reaction or Fenton's reagent) which produce free radicals helps the decomposition of cellulose fibers. The results were as follows: The solubility of cellulose fiber in sodium hydroxide solution was up to 42% cellulose and the best sodium hydroxide concentration is 8% for treated simples in Fenton solution and for untreated simples were the best solubility of cellulose fiber up to 28% and the best temperature is -20 Co for both. For the solubility of cellulose fibers in sodium hydroxide and urea solution (6% NaOH + 4% urea) was more than 60% of treated cellulose in Fenton reaction , while for untreated cellulose was the best solubility ratio up to 35% and it was the best temperature - 15 Co


Article
Nonlinear Behavior of Self -Compacting Reinforced Concrete Two-Way Slabs with Central Square Opening under Uniformly Distributed Loads
التصرف اللاخطي للبلاطات الخرسانية المسلحة ذاتية الرص العاملة باتجاهين ذات فتحات مربعة في المركز تحت تاثير احمال منتشره

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Abstract

This research is carried out to investigate the behavior of self-compacting concrete (SCC) two-way slabs with central square opening under uniformly distributed loads. The experimental part of this research is based on casting and testing six SCC simply supported square slabs having the same dimentions and reinforcement. One of these slabs was cast without opening as a control slab. While, the other five slabs having opening ratios (OR) of 2.78%, 6.25%, 11.11%, 17.36% and 25.00%. From the experimental results it is found that the maximum percentage decrease in cracking and ultimate uniform loads were 31.82% and 12.17% compared to control slab for opening ratios (OR) of 11.11% and 6.25% respectively. Also the results showed that as OR is increased from 0.00% to 11.11%, a signifacant increase in deflection was occured. While the increase of OR from 11.11% to 25.00%, a slighlty decrease in deflection was occured compared to control slab within the entire range of loading starting from first cracking load up to ultimate load. The theoretical part of this research is adopted for both simply supported and clamped ends square slabs according to yield line theory. For simply supported slabs, the results showed a decrease in ultimate uniform loads for OR ranging between 0.00% and 25.00%. While beyond this value, an increase in the ultimate uniform load is occured. In addition, it is found that as OR was increased; the total ultimate load is decreased. Also from the theoretical analysis for clamped end slabs it is found that as OR was increased, both the ultimate uniform load and the total ultimate load were increased.


Article
Study the Properties of Sodium Silicate Composite as a Barrier Separating Between the Internal Oil Distillation Towers and Chemical Fumes of Crude Oil
دراسة خصائص متراكبات سليكات الصوديوم كحاجز وقائي يفصل بين بطانة ابراج التصفية النفطية والابخرة الكيميائية للنفط الخام

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Abstract

The study of surface hardness, wear resistance, adhesion strength, electrochemical corrosion resistance and thermal conductivity of coatings composed from sodium silicate was prepared using graphite micro-size particles and carbon nano particles as fillers respectively of concentration of (1-5%), for the purpose of covering and protecting the oil distillation towers. The results showed that the sodium silicate coating reinforced with carbon nano-powder has higher resistance to stitches, mechanical wear, adhesive and thermal conductivity than graphite/sodium silicate composite especially when the ratio 5% and 1%, the electrochemical corrosion test confirmed that the coating process of stainless steel 304 lead to increasing the corrosion resistance, where the reinforcing of sodium silicate lead to a significant improvement in the corrosion resistance, the corrosion resistance behavior change depending on the type of reinforcement material, this is consistent with the field test results.


Article
Aluminum Rubbish as a Coagulant for Oily Wastewater Treatment
أستخدام نفايات الألمنيوم كمادة مخثرة لمعالجة المياه الملوثة بالزيوت

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Abstract

In this study an experimental work was done to study the possibility of using aluminum rubbish material as a coagulant to remove the colloidal particles from oily wastewater by dissolving this rubbish in sodium hydroxide solution. The experiments were carried out on simulated oily wastewater that was prepared at different oil concentrations and hardness levels (50, 250, 500, and 1000) ppm oil for (2000, 2500, 3000, and 3500) ppm CaCo3 respectively. The initial turbidity values were (203, 290, 770, and 1306) NTU, while the minimum values of turbidity that have been gained from the experiments in NTU units were (1.67, 1.95, 2.10, and 4.01) at best sodium aluminate dosages in milliliters (12, 20, 24, and 28) for oily wastewater of concentrations (50, 250, 500, and 1000) ppm of oil. Zeta potential and particle size measurements have been carried out to the samples of oily wastewater before treatment and during the coagulation- flocculation process at 2, and 22 minutes after the addition of the optimum coagulant doses in order to determine and investigate the operation conditions. The results were presented graphically in two dimensional co-ordinates showing particle size distribution and growth that have (greater intensity, largest volume, and greater surface area) as a function with time.


Article
Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis Via Photovoltaic Panel
أنتاج الهيدروجين بواسطه التحليل الكهربائي للماء عن طريق اللوح الكهروضوئي

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Abstract

Hydrogen fuel is a good alternative to fossil fuels. It can be produced using a clean energy without contaminated emissions. This work is concerned with experimental study on hydrogen production via solar energy. Photovoltaic module is used to convert solar radiation to electrical energy. The electrical energy is used for electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen by using alkaline water electrolyzer with stainless steel electrodes. A MATLAB computer program is developed to solve a four-parameter-model and predict the characteristics of PV module under Baghdad climate conditions. The hydrogen production system is tested at different NaOH mass concentration of (50,100, 200, 300) gram. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 153.3 ml/min, the efficiency of the system is 20.88% and the total amount of hydrogen produced in one day is 220.752 liter.


Article
Determination of Mono-crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Module Parameters Using Three Different Methods
حساب عوامل لوح السلكون الفوتوفولتائي احادي التبلور باستخدام ثلاث طرق مختلفة

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Abstract

For modeling a photovoltaic module, it is necessary to calculate the basic parameters which control the current-voltage characteristic curves, that is not provided by the manufacturer. Generally, for mono crystalline silicon module, the shunt resistance is generally high, and it is neglected in this model. In this study, three methods are presented for four parameters model. Explicit simplified method based on an analytical solution, slope method based on manufacturer data, and iterative method based on a numerical resolution. The results obtained for these methods were compared with experimental measured data. The iterative method was more accurate than the other two methods but more complexity. The average deviation of the iterative method not more than 5% of current- voltage values with the corresponding experimental data. The average deviation for the other two method 9.3% for slope method and 7.9% for simplifies method.


Article
Optimization of Hole Cleaning In Iraqi Directional Oil Wells
التنظيف الامثل للتجاويف المحفورة في الابار الاتجاهية النفطية العراقية

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Abstract

Efficient cuttings transport and hole cleaning are very important factors for obtaining an effective drilling operation. In an inclined and horizontal drilling, hole cleaning issue is a common and complex problem. The scope of this research is to study the drilling parameters which affect hole cleaning in Iraqi directional wells through studying and analyzing some drilled wells ( vertical , directional (30 degree) , directional (60 degree) and horizontal ).An excel sheet is prepared to calculate carrying capacity index which represents an indicator for good hole cleaning in different sections. The study indicated through the field investigations, practical experiences and theoretical calculations that the most effective drilling parameters for optimum hole cleaning were flow rate, yield point, mud weight, plastic viscosity, rotation of the drill string, and pH.


Article
FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF LOCAL ASPALT CONCRETE
خواص الكسر للخرسانة الاسفلتية المحلية

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Abstract

The local asphalt concrete fracture properties represented by the fracture energy, J-integral, and stress intensity factor are calculated from the results of the three point bending beam test made for pre notches beams specimens with deformation rate of 1.27 mm/min. The results revealed that the stress intensity factor has increased by more than 40% when decreasing the testing temperature 10˚C and increasing the notch depth from 5 to 30mm. The change of asphalt type and content have a limited effect of less than 6%.


Article
Estimation and Improvement of Routing Protocol Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Using Fuzzy Neural Network
اقتراح وتحسين بروتوكولات توجيه الشبكة المخصصة باستخدام جودة الخدمة بواسطة الشبكات العصبية الغامضة

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Abstract

Ad-Hoc Networks are a generation of networks that are truly wireless, and can be easily constructed without any operator. There are protocols for management of these networks, in which the effectiveness and the important elements in these networks are the Quality of Service (QoS). In this work the evaluation of QoS performance of MANETs is done by comparing the results of using AODV, DSR, OLSR and TORA routing protocols using the Op-Net Modeler, then conduct an extensive set of performance experiments for these protocols with a wide variety of settings. The results show that the best protocol depends on QoS using two types of applications (+ve and –ve QoS in the FIS evaluation). QoS of the protocol varies from one protocol to another depending on the applications used in the network. The network design is done using the program (Op-Net V14.5 modular) with core i7 computer for multiple nodes deployed randomly in several area (100 * 100, 200 * 200, 400 * 400, 800 * 800, 1000 * 1000)m2 accomplished by changing the number of nodes in the network (10, 20, 40 and 80). There are three programs designed using (MATLAB 2012A programming language). The first one evaluates the (QoS) using the organizational structure of the mysterious system (HFS), which relied on the standard applications that should be provided by the protocols to make the applications accepted by the nodes requirements. After the evaluation the QoS for all cases, we design Neural Network to assist in estimation of the best protocol for any network through QoS for all protocols (AODV, DSR, OLSR and TORA). Neural network has four entrances (area, number of nodes, real time application ratio and non-real time application ratio). The results show that the QoS estimated is (0.5401) of (OLSR) which has been improved to (0.6421) by reducing to mobility speed and making some nodes fixed and using more than one protocol in the network to provide the best QoS .


Article
An Adaptive Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Multi-Robot Path Planning
تطوير خوارزمية اسراب الطيور متعددة الوظائف لتخطيط المسار لآكثر من روبوت

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This paper discusses an optimal path planning algorithm based on an Adaptive Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (AMOPSO) for two case studies. First case, single robot wants to reach a goal in the static environment that contain two obstacles and two danger source. The second one, is improving the ability for five robots to reach the shortest way. The proposed algorithm solves the optimization problems for the first case by finding the minimum distance from initial to goal position and also ensuring that the generated path has a maximum distance from the danger zones. And for the second case, finding the shortest path for every robot and without any collision between them with the shortest time. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm in term of finding the best solution, six benchmark test functions are used to make a comparison between AMOPSO and the standard MOPSO. The results show that the AMOPSO has a better ability to get away from local optimums with a quickest convergence than the MOPSO. The simulation results using Matlab 2014a, indicate that this methodology is extremely valuable for every robot in multi-robot framework to discover its own particular proper path from the start to the destination position with minimum distance and time.


Article
Buckling Analysis of Edge Cracked Sandwich Plate
تحليل الانبعاج للصفائح الشطيرية الحاوية على شق

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This work presents mainly the buckling load of sandwich plates with or without crack for different cases. The buckling loads are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using ANSYS 15. The experimental investigation was to fabricate the cracked sandwich plate from stainless steel and PVC to find mechanical properties of stainless steel and PVC such as young modulus. The buckling load for different aspect ratio, crack length, cracked location and plate without crack found. The experimental results were compared with that found from ANSYS program. Present of crack is decreased the buckling load and that depends on crack size, crack location and aspect ratio.

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