Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:22 issue:8

Article
Application Artificial Forecasting Techniques in Cost Management (review)
تطبيقات تقنيات التنبؤ الذكية في ادارة الكلفة (استعراض)

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Abstract

For the duration of the last few many years many improvement in computer technology, software program programming and application production had been followed with the aid of diverse engineering disciplines. Those trends are on the whole focusing on synthetic Intelligence strategies. Therefore, a number of definitions are supplied, which recognition at the concept of artificial Intelligence from exclusive viewpoints. These paper opinions current applications of synthetic Intelligence (AI) that facilitate cost management in civil engineering tasks. An evaluation of the artificial Intelligence in its precise partial branches is supplied. These branches or strategies contributed to the creation of a sizable group of fashions that difficulty evaluation, interpretation and prediction of various parameters. A list of decided on, updated fashions is provided, that challenge cost control for civil engineering initiatives. The models are analyzed in keeping with the pastime, discipline of operation, enter and output statistics and the techniques and strategies they implant. It will become clean that arterial Intelligence may be the destiny vital tool for each engineer and it's going to lead to sizable upgrades within the construction area.


Article
Exploring the Factors Affecting the Elemental Cost Estimation with Relationship Analysis Using AHP
تحري العوامل المؤثرة على التخمين الاولي للكلف وتحليل العلاقة بينها باستخدام عملية التحليل الهرمي

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Abstract

Cost estimation considered one of the important task in the construction projects management. The precise estimation of the construction cost affect on the success and quality of a construction project. Elemental estimation consider a very important stage to the project team because it represents one of the key project elements, It helps in formulating the basis to strategies and execution plans for construction and engineering. Elemental estimation, which in the early stage, estimate the construction costs depending on minimum details of the project so that it give an indication for the initial design stage of a project. This paper study the factors that affect the elemental cost estimation as well as the relation between these factors using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Final conclusions and recommendations were extracted for better elemental estimation accuracy in project management.


Article
Non-Linear Behavior of Strengthened Steel-Concrete Composite Beams with Partial Interaction of Shear Connectors
التصرف اللاخطي للعتبات المقواة والمركبة من الحديد والخرسانة المتصلة جزئياً باستخدام رباطات القص

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Abstract

In this research a theoretical study has been carried out on the behavior and strength of simply supported composite beams strengthened by steel cover plate taking into consideration partial interaction of shear connectors and nonlinear behavior of the materials and shear connectors. Following the procedure that already has been adopted by Johnson (1975), the basic differential equations of equilibrium and compatibility were reduced to single differential equation in terms of interface slip between concrete slab and steel beam. Furthermore, in order to consider the nonlinear behavior of steel, concrete and shear connectors, the basic equation was rearrange so that all terms related to materials are isolated in the equation from the main variable (interface slip). The exact solution was obtained by considering appropriate boundary conditions according to load types and location. A computer program has been written using MATLAB R2013a to simplify the process of computation of section properties where the load applied iteratively from zero to ultimate capacity of the beam, and the results are compared with available experimental results which show good agreement. As the composite section reaches its ultimate capacity in bending and lower flange start yielding due to excessive loading, cover plate are furnished in order to increase load carrying capacity of beam. In the process of strengthening, using of cover plate as a percent of the area of lower flange of steel section equal to 41%, 82% and 164% will increase the beam carrying capacity by 15%, 30% and 43% respectively; also using the same above mentioned area of cover plate will reduce the central deflection by 59%, 72% and 80% respectively.


Article
Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strips
سلوك العتبات الخرسانية المسلحة العميقة المقواة بأشرطة الألياف الكاربونية

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Abstract

This research is concerned to investigate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips. The experimental part of this research is carried out by testing seven RC deep beams having the same dimensions and steel reinforcement which have been divided into two groups according to the strengthening schemes. Group one was consisted of three deep beams strengthened with vertical U-wrapped CFRP strips. While, Group two was consisted of three deep beams strengthened with inclined CFRP strips oriented by 45o with the longitudinal axis of the beam. The remaining beam is kept unstrengthening as a reference beam. For each group, the variable considered was the center to center spacing between strips (orthogonal spacing) which are (100 mm, 125 mm and 150 mm). Based on the experimental results it is found that the strengthening deep beams with CFRP strips by the two strengthening schemes, the mid-span deflection was decreased and both first cracking and ultimate loads capacities were increased compare to reference deep beam. For beams having the same spacing between strips, the enhancement occurred by using vertical U- wrapped scheme was somewhat better than using inclined scheme but it needs to use additional numbers of CFRP strips. The percentages increase in first cracking and ultimate loads were (50.0%, 46.0% and 20.5%) and (14.6%, 13.3% and 12.2%) respectively for beams strengthened with vertical U-wrapped scheme. While these percentages were change to (36.5%, 18.0% and 12.5%) and (12.5%, 10.4% and 8.6%) for beams strengthened with inclined scheme. These results were obtained for center to center spacing between strips of (100 mm, 125 mm and 150 mm) respectively. The analytical part of this research was also adopted using the ACI 440 Code provisions to calculate the additional shear resistance carried by the CFRP strips. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and analytical results.


Article
Performance Evaluation of the Investment Projects during the Implementation Phase (Najaf province as a case study)
تقييم الاداء المشاريع الاستثمارية خلال مرحلة التنفيذ (محافظة النجف حالة دراسية)

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Abstract

The construction project is a very complicated work by its nature and requires specialized knowledge to lead it to success. The construction project is complicated socially, technically and economically in its planning, management and implementation aspects due to the fact that it has many variables and multiple stakeholders in addition to being affected by the surrounding environment. Successful projects depend on three fundamental points which are cost-time, performance and specifications. The project stakeholder's objective to achieve best specifications and the cost-time frame stipulated in the contract. The question is, was the optimum implementation accomplished? The provision for the success of the project is how are the daily activities managed by the three stakeholders of the project (contractor, owner, and consultant) and their technical and practical capability to attain the balance of the project fundamental points (cost, time and quality) taking into account the project objectives that were set by the owner. Despite the way, logical framework management and project’s major steps there is a group of elements which become major measures to determine the success or failure of the project, the research interested in these elements by a thorough study of references related to the success of a constructional project. To reinforce the theoretical study a field assessment of the housing project; this led to the recognition of the major elements that caused breaches of the evaluation criteria. The closed questionnaire and the regular forms based on the data and information collected through the theoretical review and the closed questionnaire to conclude and examine some concepts related by assessing the quality of building materials used in residential investment projects through the stages (planning - design-implementation) Through the research a lot of deductions were made, the most important is that there cannot be an evaluation system without having a holistic monitoring system in Iraq. It was also deduced that the most important source of project failure is not allocating enough time to the planning phase. Some other recommendations and suggestions for future studies were made also.


Article
Prediction of Monthly Fluoride Content in Tigris River using SARIMA Model in R Software
التنبؤ بمحتوى الفلورايد الشهري في نهر دجلة باستخدام (SARIMA) موديل في برنامج (R)

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Abstract

The need to create the optimal water quality management process has motivated researchers to pursue prediction modeling development. One of the widely important forecasting models is the sessional autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. In the present study, a SARIMA model was developed in R software to fit a time series data of monthly fluoride content collected from six stations on Tigris River for the period from 2004 to 2014. The adequate SARIMA model that has the least Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and mean squared error (MSE) was found to be SARIMA (2,0,0) (0,1,1). The model parameters were identified and diagnosed to derive the forecasting equations at each selected location. The correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted values for fluoride concentration at the six locations, Al-Karakh, East Tigris, Al-Wathbah, AL-Karamah, Al-Rashid and Al-Wahda WTP intakes, was 0.93, 0.82, 0.86, 0.90, 0.83 and 0.89, respectively. Model verification results indicated that the model forecasting outputs rationally estimated the actual monthly fluoride content in the selected locations.


Article
Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Foundation Subjected to Eccentric Inclined Loads Using Finite Element Method
تقييم قابلية تحمل الأساس الشريطي المُعرَض لأحمال مائلة غير مركزية بأستخدام طريقة العناصر المحددة

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Abstract

In real conditions of structures, foundations like retaining walls, industrial machines and platforms in offshore areas are commonly subjected to eccentrically inclined loads. This type of loading significantly affects the overall stability of shallow foundations due to exposing the foundation into two components of loads (horizontal and vertical) and consequently reduces the bearing capacity. Based on a numerical analysis performed using finite element software (Plaxis 3D Foundation), the behavior of model strip foundation rested on dry sand under the effect of eccentric inclined loads with different embedment ratios (D/B) ranging from (0-1) has been explored. The results display that, the bearing capacity of strip foundation is noticeably decreased with the increase of inclination angle (α) and eccentricity ratio (e/B). As well as, a reduction factor (RF) expression was appointed to measure the degree of decreasing in the bearing capacity when the model footing is subjected to eccentric inclined load. It was observed that, the (RF) decreases as the embedment ratio increases. Moreover, the test results also exhibit that, the model footing bearing capacity is reduced by about (69%) when the load inclination is varied from (0° to 20°) and the model footing is on the surface. While, the rate of decreasing in the bearing capacity was found to be (58%), for the both cases of footing when they are at embedment ratios of (0.5 and 1.0) Also, a comparative study was carried out between the present results and previous experimental test results under the same conditions (soil properties and boundary condition). A good agreement was obtained between the predicted bearing capacities for the two related studies.


Article
Some Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Magnetic Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Nano Silica
بعض خواص خرسانة المساحيق الفعالة الممغنطة المسلحة بألياف الكاربون الحاوية على النانو سيليكا

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Abstract

This study involves the design of 24 mixtures of fiber reinforced magnetic reactive powder concrete containing nano silica. Tap water was used for 12 of these mixtures, while magnetic water was used for the others. The nano silica (NS) with ratios (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3)% by weight of cement, were used for all the mixtures. The results have shown that the mixture containing 2.5% NS gives the highest compressive strength at age 7 days. Many different other tests were carried out, the results have shown that the carbon fiber reinforced magnetic reactive powder concrete containing 2.5% NS (CFRMRPCCNS) had higher compressive strength, modulus of rupture, splitting tension, stress in compression and strain in compression than the corresponding values for the carbon fiber reinforced nonmagnetic reactive powder concrete containing the same ratio of NS (CFRNRPCCNS). The percentage increase in these values for CFRMRPCCNS were (22.37, 17.96, 19.44, 6.44 and 25.8)% at 28 days respectively, as compared with the corresponding CFRNRPCCNS mixtures.


Article
Structural Behavior of Confined Concrete Filled Aluminum Tubular (CFT) Columns Under Concentric Load
السلوك الإنشائي للأعمدة الخرسانية الدائرية والمحاطة بالألمنيوم تحت تأثير حمل محوري

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Abstract

This paper introduces an experimental study on the behavior of confined concrete filled aluminum tubular (CFT) column to improve strength design, ductility and durability of concrete composite structures under concentrically loaded in compression to failure. To achieve this: seven column specimens with same concrete diameter 100mm and without steel reinforcement have been examined through experimental testing, which are used to study the effects of the thickness of the aluminum tube encased concrete ( thickness : 0mm, 2mm, 3mm, 4mm and 5mm with same length of column 450mm), length of column (thickness 5mm and length of column 700mm) and durability (thickness 5mm and length of column 450mm) on the structural behavior of (CFT) columns. It is concluded from this work that the compression force capacity is affected by thicknesses of the aluminum tube with respect to reference specimen. Where the used of aluminum tube thicknesses in column specimens led to increased in load carrying capacity in range (16% for C2 -224% for C5 ). The specimen has a length of 700mm with 5mm thickness the decreased of strength was 0.06% than the specimen with 5mm thickness and length 450mm. For slender column the overall buckling was observed while the local buckling for the short column is the dominant failure shape. Regarding durability, no apparent difference has been found between the structural behavior of the specimen that immersed in aggressive solution and specimen in air.

Keywords

circular --- column --- aluminum --- CFT --- confinement


Article
Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Fluoroquinolones Antibiotics
تحضير وتوصيف الكاربون المنشط لأمتزاز ملوثات الفلوروكوينولونس

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Abstract

In this research, the preparation of a chemically activated carbon from date stones by using electric and microwave assisted K2CO3 activation was studied. The effect of radiation power, radiation time, and impregnation ratio on the yield and Iodine number on the activated carbons was investigated. The activated carbon characterizations were examined by its surface area, pore structure analysis, bulk density, moisture content, ash content, iodine number, FT_IR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity was also studied by adsorption of fluoroquinolones antibiotics, CIP, NOR, and LEVO, by the prepared activated carbon.


Article
Galvanic Corrosion of Carbon Steel -Stainless Steel Couple in Sulfuric Acid under Flow Conditions
التاكل الكلفاني للحديد الكاربوني والحديد المقاوم للصدأ في حامض الكبريتيك تحت تاثير الجريان

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Abstract

Galvanic corrosion of stainless steel 316 (SS316) and carbon steel (CS) coupled in 5% wt/v sulfuric acid solution at agitation velocity was investigated. The galvanic behavior of coupled metals was also studies using zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) method. The effects of agitation velocity, temperature, and time on galvanic corrosion current and loss in weight of both metals in both free corrosion and galvanic corrosion were investigated. The trends of open circuit potential (OCP) of each metal and galvanic potential (Eg) of the couple were, also, determined. Results showed that SS316 was cathodic relative to CS in galvanic couple and its OCP was much more positive than that of CS for all investigated ranges of operating conditions. A sharp increase in galvanic current from CS to SS316 in the first 20 min and then decrease with time. Increasing the agitation velocity led to increase in galvanic corrosion rate. The decrease in galvanic current is attributed to metal passivation due to the formation of a protective film which grows with time. The minus sign in galvanic current means that the current is flow from CS (anode) to SS316 (Cathode). The galvanic current of CS-SS316 couple shifts to the negative direction with increase agitation velocity.


Article
Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Performance of Solar-Assisted Air Conditioning System under Iraq Climate
تقييم الاداء الحراري لمنظومة تكييف هواء تعمل بمساعدة الطاقة الشمسية في العراق نظًرياً

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Abstract

In Iraq most of the small buildings deployed a conventional air conditioning technology which typically uses electrically driven compressor systems which exhibits several clear disadvantages such as high energy consumption, high electricity at peak loads. In this work a thermal performance of air conditioning system combined with a solar collector is investigated theoretically. The hybrid air conditioner consists of a semi hermetic compressor, water cooled shell and tube condenser, thermal expansion valve and coil with tank evaporator. The theoretical analysis included a simulation for the solar assisted air-conditioning system using EES software to analyze the effect of different parameters on the power consumption of compressor and the performance of system. The results show that refrigeration capacity is increased from 2.7 kW to 4.4kW, as the evaporating temperature increased from 3 to 18 ºC. Also the power consumption is increased from 0.89 kW to 1.08 kW. So the COP of the system is increased from 3.068 to 4.117. The power consumption is increased from 0.897 kW to 1.031 kW as the condensing temperature increased from 35 ºC to 45 ºC. While the COP is decreased from 3.89 to 3.1. The power consumption is decreased from 1.05 kW to 0.7kW as the solar radiation intensity increased from 300 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2, while the COP is increased from 3.15 to 4.8. A comparison between the simulation and available experimental data showed acceptable agreement.


Article
Investigation of Factors Influencing Dispersion of Liquid Hydrocarbons in Porous Media
دراسة العوامل المؤثرة على تشتت الهيدروكاربونات السائلة في الوسط المسامي

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An experimental work has been done to study the major factors that affect the axial dispersion of some hydrocarbons during liquid-liquid miscible displacement. Kerosene and gas oil are used as displacing phase while seven liquid hydrocarbons of high purity represent the displaced phase, three of the liquids are Aromatics and the rest are of paraffinic base. In conducting the experiments, two packed beds of different porosity and permeability are used as porous media. The results showed that the displacement process is not a piston flow, breakthrough of displacing fluids are shown before one pore volume has been injected. The processes are stable with no evidence of viscous fingering. Dispersion model as adapted by Brigham et.al (1961) is used to determine the axial dispersion coefficient of displacing fluid. The results showing an increasing in dispersion coefficient as the interstitial velocity and viscosity ratio increases.

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