Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology

المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Institute of genetic Engineering and Techno-biology
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology was founded in 2001 ,it was first issued in 2002,it is a semi-annual refereed scientific journal issued by the Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Baghdad University in fields of biology, environment, agricultural sciences ,medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine and researches specialized in bioinformatics

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E-mail:journal@ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq
www.iqjb.net
www.ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq : موقع المعهدعلى شبكة
الإنترنت
TEL:7789300
Baghdad-AL-Jadriyah -p.o.box:12074

Table of content: 2016 volume:15 issue:3

Article
Etiology of Bacterial and Parasitic Enteropathogens among Patients with Acute Diarrhea in Babylon Province

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Abstract

Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in most people . To clarify the infectious etiology of diarrhea in some patient aged from 8-30 years, we collected in clean suitable container stool samples from 78 patients with diarrhea from general teaching Hilla Hospital from September 2014 to April2015. From 78 diarrheal cases, only 38 (48.71%) cases are caused by bacteria and 27 (34.6 %) cases are caused by parasites , also there are 13 (16.66%) cases have mixed infection between them. Gram negative bacteria formed 76.31% (29 cases) represented by E. coli 16 cases (55.17%), Salmonella spp.6 cases (20.68%), Shigella 3 cases (10.34%), Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2 cases (6.89%) for each one. While gram positive bacteria consists 23,68% (9ases) represented by Clostridium spp. 4 cases (44.44%), Bacillus spp. 3cases (33.33%) and Staphylococcus aureus 2cases (22.22%), while parasitic infection were Giardia lamblia appears as the most frequent parasitic causative agent 11cases (40.74 %) followed by Entamoeba histolytica 9 (33.33% ), Entrobius vermicalaris 4 (14.81%) , Hymenolips nana 3 (11.11%). Increased rate of infection were falls on the first and second age groups, and also high rate of infection were recorded in females than in males.


Article
Use the Heavy Alpha Particles in Simulation Experiments to Find Energy Appropriate for Destruction Cancer Cells

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Abstract

The importance of using the heavy alpha particles in simulation experiments to find the appropriate energy for destruction cancer cells has multiple applications in physics and medical physics. It is found that the probability of destruction of cancer cells increased at energies lower than few 20 MeV and exponentially decreasing at high energies larger than 20 MeV. The programming language FORTRAN - 90 was used for a required calculation. Different kinetic energies of the incident alpha particle (T = 0.05, 1, 2, 2.5 MeV / u) to destroy cancer cells were employed. The energy loss of incident particle was calculated by dielectric formalism using model Plasmon pole approximation (PPA) model in two target , which are Liquid water and DNA , which more than one wavelength of the incident particle (Brandt and Kitagawa Model) and (Kaneko Model) Good agreement is with previous work was achieved.


Article
Polymer- Nanoparticles Composites for the Reduction of the Bacterial Adherence to Surfaces

Authors: Muna Sabbar AL-Rubiae
Pages: 17-24
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Abstract

The medical device is one of the sources of nosocomial infections; the adherence of the bacteria on the surface of this device is the first step in the medical device related infection. In this study nanocomposite of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)/titanium oxide nanoparticles (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 wt %) and copolymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)/titanium oxide nanoparticles (1, 5, 10, 20, 30 wt %) were used to investigate the ability of the nanocomposite for the reduction of the bacterial adherence to the surfaces. The microorganisms which is used in this study include (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia). After an incubation of microorganisms with nanocomposites for 2 hours, it was found that the adhered bacterial cells were significantly reduced on all of the TiO2-containing nanocomposites in the comparison with control polymer. The reduction is reached to 60.82% with10% TiO2 in ABS for P. aeruginosa. The results of the S. aureus adherence on nanocomposite are revealed a significant reduction in the number of adhered bacteria and reached to 73.71% with 20% TiO2 in PMMA. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticales on the K. pneumonia adherence appeared very clear and the reduction uis reached to 90.04% with 10% TiO2 in ABS.


Article
Effect of Selenium and Cadmium in Chlorophylls and Carotenoid Content of Cucumis melo L.

Authors: Rihab Edan Kadhim
Pages: 25-30
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Abstract

In greenhouse, seeds of Cucumis melo L. class melon hybrid F1 ananas germinated in pots. The seeds treated with different concentrations of Cd (0.0, 0.01, & 0.05M, as CdCl2), & a unique concentration of Se (0.05 M, as Na2SeO3) and as a combinations with Cd, in addition to control treatment was with Se only. There were none significant decreasing in chlorophylls a, b & total chlorophyll by 0.05 M of Cd comparing with control (distilled H2O), whereas carotenoid decreased significantly. Generally, treatment with Se enhanced the chlorophyll content, where chlorophyll content increased significantly in contrast with control (dH2O). Se + Cd as a combination treatments, especially at Cd with concentration 0.05 M was more enhancing for increasing the chlorophylls a, b, total chlorophyll & carotenoid content at comparing with almost treatments, especially with seeds that treated by Cd at 0.01 & 0.05M. These results indicate the presence antagonistic effect between Se and Cd in chlorophyll contents.


Article
Virulence Genes Profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Local Isolates from Burns and Wounds

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Abstract

In this study a total of 111 swabs were collected from 50 patients suffering from burns and wounds between the age 9 months -69 years from both gender , the specimens were collected from Educational Al-Yarmouk and AL Kadhimiya hospitals in Baghdad during the period between October-December2014, All the samples were identified by biochemical tests , API 20 E and Vitak -2 . From 111 specimens, 31 isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa , 33 isolates were Escherichia coli and 10 isolates were Klebsiella spp, . Drug susceptibility tests for the 31 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied by the disk diffusion method against 5 antibiotics and the result showed the percentage of resistance: Carbenicillin 100%, Ticarcillin 61 %, Pipracillin 32 % ,Cefprozil 93% , Colistin 84% . The DNA samples of the 31 isolates of Pseudomonas.aeruginosa were extracted by DNA extraction kit , the concentration for all 31 DNA samples were between 60- 110 ng /ul and the purity were between 1.8-2 .PCR (Polymerase Chain Reactin) was used for screening the virulence factor genes , protein synthesis inhibition genes (exo A , las B , exoU ) of the thirty one isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The result showed that 27 ( 87%) isolates were positive for exo A and las B genes, 4 ( 13%) were negative, , from 25 burn isolates was 23 (92%) positive isolates and from 6 wound isolates was 4 (66%) positives isolates. . For the exoU gene the result showed that 17 ( 55%) were positive , 14 ( 45% )were negative , From 25 burn isolates the presence of exoU was seen in 15 ( 60 %), while from 6 wound isolates was 2 (33 %).


Article
Evaluation of Maleamic Acid Derivatives Against Some Pathogenic Fungi

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Abstract

Five maleamic acid derivatives were prepared: Bis –maleamic acid(compound A); Ethylene –Bis–maleamic acid(compound A1); 1,4 –phenylene (2,2- diamino –Bis (1,3,4- thiadiazol- 5- yl))malaemic acid(compound A2) ; 4-N( 2,3 – dimethyl- 1- phenyl – pyrazolin-5- one- 4-yl) maleicacid (compound A3) and 5-methyl -3- sulphanilamide maleamic acid(compound B). These were examined to study their antifungal activity against six pathogenic fungi, some of them causing superficial infection like T. rubrum, T. violaceum and T. soudanese, while others are responsible for invasive infection(lower respiratory tract) like A. fumigatus, A . flavus and P. marneffei. Results showed that the first three derivatives A, A1 and A2, are active against both the dermatophytes and invasive fungi, remarkably A derivative is highly active (100% growth inhibition) against T. soudanese and in three different concentrations and have the same activity against T.violaceum and Aspergillus species but only at the highest concentration. Derivative A1 have the highest effect (100% growth inhibition) against T. rubrum and T. violaceum and P. marneffeiat the highest concentration only, while the third derivative A2 showed the same activity against T. violaceum at the highest concentration and against A. fumigatus at the three highest concentrations. On the other hand the two derivatives A3 and B found to have a considered antifungal effect against dermatophytes (100% growth inhibition ), that A3 derivative showed is active against T. rubrum in its tow highest concentrations and against T. violaceum only at the highest concentration, they were recorded also to have antifungal effect against other studied species but to less extent .Finally, derivative B is recorded to be active effect against T.rubrum (100% growth inhibition) at its highest concentration and also has a considered effect against T. violacem in its tow highest concentration. Maleamic acid derivatives appeared to be strong antifungals , and their activity increasing gradually with concentration and with a significant difference between the activities of the compounds (p≤0.05). It is concluded that those compounds may have uses as antifungals in the future.


Article
Production, Partial Purification and Antitumor Properties of Bioactive Compounds from Locally Isolated Actinomycetes (KH14)

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial and antitumor activities of bioactive compounds produced from locally isolated actinomycetes (KH14), and analyzing these compounds by TLC, bioautograhgy and HPLC-MS. The isolate KH14 showed significant inhibition of human microbial pathogens, both Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and yeast with an inhibition zone of 30, 13 and 12 mm, respectively. The MICs potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were 64, 500 and 500 µl/ml, respectively. The antimicrobial compound was analyzed by TLC, which indicated the presence of four spots while only one of them exhibited antimicrobial activities and their position was determined by bioautography, via different solvents exhibiting different Rf values. HPLS-MS analysis of scraped active spot from the TLC indicated the presence of a large number of compounds when determining their mass chromatogram, while UV absorbance indicated the presences of only two peaks with UV absorbances 221.85and 264.85nm. The antitumor activity by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl) -2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that KH14possesses a powerful effect against using cancerous cell lines, especially against Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) by inhibiting 75.84% with (400 µg), while against the rest of other cell lines, Human Prostate cancer cells ( PC3)and Human malignant melanoma, skin cancer (A375), were shown moderate activities.

Keywords

Antimicrobials --- MICs --- TLC --- HPLC-MS --- Antitumor activity


Article
Optimization and Characterization Growth Conditions of Lipase-Producing Bacteria from Oil Contaminated Soil and Sewage

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Abstract

Ten samples of oil contaminated sewage and soil were collected from generators locations and car repair locations in Baghdad, Iraq for isolation of lipase- producing bacteria. Enriched selective media technique was used for isolation of lipase- producing bacteria in which different inducers (olive oil and Tween 80) used for enzyme production. The effect of different pH and temperatures were investigated. Fifteen lipase - producing bacteria had been isolated; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6 isolates), Escherichia coli (5 isolates), Klebsiella pneumonia (3 isolates) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1 isolate). Olive oil was found to be the more suitable source of carbon and lipid than Tween 80 for lipase- producing bacteria. All lipase- producing bacteria were capable to grow at different pH except of E.coli and S. epidermidis which could not grow at pH 9. All lipase- producing bacteria were capable to grow at different temperature except of E.coli, K.pneumoniae and S. epidermidis could not grow at 4ᴏC. P. aeruginosa was considered the best lipase- producing bacteria which could handle the different conditions, and the optimum conditions for growth and enzyme production was at 37 ᴏC, pH 7 and incubation period 48hrs. or more.


Article
Assessments of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Prednisolone Drug in Male Mice

Authors: Farha A. Ali Shafi
Pages: 71-77
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Abstract

Prednisolone is a corticosteroids drug widely used for treatment of numerous conditions such as inflammation, asthma, allergies, cancer and immune diseases. The cytotoxic and mutagenic impact of this drug was evaluated in male mice by using mitotic index and sperm head abnormality assays. The study was carried out with thirty six adult male albino mice (Mus musculs).They were divided into the following groups: Treated group which orally given 0.1 mg/Kg of Prednisolone for 30days, the positive control group which take a single dose of cyclophosphamide drug (5mg/kg body weight) for 7 days other group considers as negative control received distilled water only for 30days. The drug did not induce a significant difference in the mean count of mitotic index of bone marrow and germ cells. As well as it doesn't induce a significant increase in sperm head abnormality. It can be concluded that tested dose of Prednisolone failed to induce genotoxic and cytotoxic impact in bone marrow and germ cells.


Article
Association of Genetic Polymorphisms in a Sample of Iraqi Patients with Type2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Abstract

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a progressive condition that is characterized by high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)‚ with T2D the body either resist the effect of insulin or does not produce enough insulin. In order to underline the role of the genes involved in this study‚ we investigate ‚using PCR-RFLP for CTLA-4 gene ‚ PCR-RFLP and sequencing for VDR gene. Polymorphisms of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belonging to both genes in 60 T2D patients and 30 healthy control from Iraqi population. The present local study demonstrated that VDR FoK-I‚ FF genotype (P = 0.04) and F‚f alleles (P=0.07) frequencies were significantly associated while VDR Bsm-I was significantly non-associated. CTLA-4 -1722(T>C) and +49 (A>G) shows non-significant association. These result suggest the involvement of VDR gene in the genetic susceptibility to T2D. Interestingly FoK-I‚ contributes to increasing the risk to the disease in our population. However‚ Further studies are require to confirmed this finding.


Article
Analysis of Polymorphism of Melatonin Receptor Type 1A (MTNR1A) Gene, in Iraqi Local Sheep Using PCR-RFLP Technique

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Abstract

The gene encoding melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A) gene by PCR-RFLP, the aim of the present study of polymorphism MTNR1A gene associated with breeding out of season and correlated with prolactin hormone in Iraqi sheep breed,. Blood samples were randomly collected from 60 ewes from Agriculture Research-Ruminant Researches station breeding station, Baghdad, and genomic DNA was isolated using a Geneius TM Micro gDNA Extraction Kit. A large fragment of exon 2 of MTNR1A gene was amplified by PCR using specific primer pairs and the PCR product was digested with RsaI enzyme which cuts the amplicon to several fragments. There are four cleavage sites (53 bp, 267 bp, 23 bp, 411 bp, 70 bp) for Rsa I within the amplification fragment, Digestion with Rsa1yielded polymorphic fragments of 267 bp when the cleavage site was present (allele R) and a single 290 bp fragment when the cleavage site was (allele r). Three genotypes RR (411 bp/267 bp), Rr (411/290 bp/267 bp) and rr (411 bp/290 bp). Three fragments of 23bp, 53 bp and 70bp were been not related allelic polymorphism .Restricted digestion allowed the determination of two alleles (R, r), Result gene frequencies were 0.40 and 0.60 for the alleles R and r respectively, in local ewes and genotype frequencies of RR (20%), Rr (40%) and rr (40%) in ewes with a significant at (P<0.01), the level of prolactin relation to the genotype differences that the highest hormonal level linked to the RR genotype (234.65±17,48ng/ml), and high significant (P<0.01) with lower values for prolactin hormone that linked to Rr and rr genotype (217. 02 ± 28.12; 182.91 ± 21.35 ng/ml) in local Iraqi ewes and no-significant values between the out and the in season lambing months, however, higher significant variation (P<0.01) of frequencies of R genotype (62.50%) in out-seasonal lambing months than in-seasonal lambing months (37.50%). It was concluded that the alleles frequencies of MTNR1A gene ‘r’ higher than ‘R’ alleles, Analysis of the MTNR1A polymorphism its relationship with prolactin concentration of Moreover show the indirect effect of higher prolactin concentration with genotype RR of the MTNR1A gene polymorphism and can be used a genetic selection marker for spring (out-of-season) breeding in Iraqi local sheep.

Keywords

MTNR1A --- PCR-RFLP --- Polymorphism --- Iraqi sheep.


Article
Adsorption of Chrome Cr (VI) from Aqueous Solution by Olive Leaves Powder

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Abstract

The pollution caused by the heavy metals presents in industrial effluents has increased in the last decades, thus raising the concern of the industries to treat their waste correctly as well as the search for low cost techniques. Adsorption of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions by olive leaves powder was investigated in batch experiments. Olive leaves were selected because of its porous morphology and rich in carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl among other functional groups which responsible for adsorption. The effect of pH, powder dosage, contact time, initial Cr (VI) concentration, mixing speed and particles size on removal efficiencies of olive leaves was studied. The adsorption percent was found to be 91.5% from the initial Cr (VI) metal ion concentration of 50 mg/L with 18 g/L adsorbent dose of leaves powder ( 150 – 200 µm) at pH = 4 after contact time of 90 min with agitation speed of 200 rpm. The adsorption data were found to be fitted well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Olive leaves were shown to be a promising biosorbent for Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solutions and can be used as an alternative to the processes of wastewater treatment.

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