Table of content

Baghdad Science Journal

مجلة بغداد للعلوم

ISSN: 20788665 24117986
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science for Women
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad
Date of First issue(2004)
No.of Issue per year(4)
No.of papers per issue (25)
No. Of issue published between 2004-2017(56) issue
This Journal publish paper in Arabic and English in area of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07800709148
E-mail: bsj@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdadscij@csw.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail:bjs.csw@gmail.com

Table of content: 2016 volume:13 issue:2ملحق ابحاث المؤتمر الوطني الثاني للكيمياء

Article
Synergistic Interaction in the adsorbed mixed surfactants film of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Cocamidopropyl Betaine on Liquid – Air Interfacial
التآثر التآزري لأنتشارجزيئات مزيج من المواد الفعالة سطحيا Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate و Cocamidopropyl Betaine على سطح بيني سائل - هواء

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In the present work, the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the solution of Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as anionic surfactant, Cocamidopropyl Betaine (CAPB) as amphoteric surfactant, and their mixture have been determined using surface tension and conductivity measurements at a temperature range 293 -323 K. The adsorption and thermodynamic micellization parameters (ΔGᵒm, ΔGᵒads, Γmax ,Amin,Πcmc ) for individual surfactants was calculated. Rosen model which is focuses on the adsorbed mixed surfactant film at the air/solution interface was used to calculate the interaction parameter ( βσ ) at the interface and the activity coefficients g1 and g2. The results indicate that the CMC of the individual surfactants was affected by the temperature at the temperature range studied. Also, the results indicate a synergistic effect present at the air – solution mixed film of surfactants.


Article
Preparation of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposites and Studying Their Mechanical Properties Using some Inorganic Additives
تحضير متراكبات البولي استر غير المشبع النانوية ودراسة خواصها الميكانيكية باستعمال بعض المضافات اللاعضوية

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In this study three inorganic nano additives, namely; CaCO3, Al2O3 and SiO2 were used to prepare nanocomposites of unsaturated polyester in order to modify their mechanical properties, i.e. tensile strength, elongation, impact and hardness. The results indicated that all the three additives were effective to improve the mechanical properties up to 4% by weight. The effectiveness of them follows the order : CaCO3 > Al2O3 > SiO2 This is due to their particle size in which CaCO3 (13nm), Al2O3 (20-30nm) and SiO2 (15-20nm).


Article
Synthesis and characterization Studies of Metal Complexes with Schiff base derived from 4-[5-(2-hydoxy-phenyl)-[1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylimino methyl]-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one
تحضير ودراسة طيفية لمعقدات بعض ايونات المعادن مع قاعدة شيف -]5-(2-هيدروكسي فنيل)- 4,3,1- اوكسادايزول[ -2-يل مثيل ايمين]5,1-ثنائي مثيل -2-فنيل-2,1- ثنائي هيدرو بايرازول -3-اون[

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New metal complexes of the ligand 4-[5-(2-hydoxy-phenyl)-[1,3,4- oxadiazol -2-ylimino methyl]-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one (L) with the metal ions Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in alcoholic medium. The Schiff base was synthesized through condensate of [4-antipyrincarboxaldehyde] with[2-amino-5-(2-hydroxy-phenyl-1,3,4- oxadiazol] in alcoholic medium . Two tetradentate Schiff base ligand were used for complexation upon two metal ions of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ as dineucler formula M2L2.4H2O. The metal complexes were characterized by FTIR Spectroscopy, electronic Spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptidbility measurements, and also the ligand was characterized by 1H-NMR spectra, and mass spectra. The Structures of complexes were proposed from the measurements.


Article
Preparation of Industrial Greases from Aircraft Waste Oils
تحضير الشحوم الصناعية من مخلفات زيوت الطائرات

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The aim of this research is to benefit from recycl the aircraft waste oils which is discarded in sewage network, to be used in preparation of greases for industrial purposes and to reduce the environmental pollution. In this research synthetic greases were prepared with special specifications by mixing the waste oils after treating with (silica gel as adsorbent agent, and filtration to precipitate impurities then heated to 110 C⁰ to get rid of water) bentonite produced in Iraq which is available and cheap with existence of high density polyethylene at specific conditions of ( heating and mixing) . The best weight proportion were reached, then paraffin wax and additives were added to improve the properties of grease and give the best specification for the final product. The properties of the resulting grease and the oil before and after processing were studied through the steps of the research such as viscosity, penetration and dropping point.


Article
The formation, structure, and electronic properties of Lansoprazol drug and cucurbit [7]urils complex (Theoretical Study)
التكوين والتركيب والخصائص الالكترونية لمعقد دواء لانزوبرازول وurals cucurbit[7](دراسة نظرية)

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The current study deals with host-guest complex formation between cucurbit [7] urils as host and lansoprazole as guesti using PM3 (semi empirical molecules orbital calculations) also DFT calculations. In this complex, the formation of hydrogen bonding may be occurred through portal oxygen atoms(O2) of cucurbit [7] urils and amine groups (NH 2 )of the drug. The energies of HOMO and LUMO orbital’s have been computed for the host guest complex and its components. The result of the stabilization energy explained a complex formation.


Article
Corrosion, Passivity and Pitting of Inconel (600) in Sulphuric Acid
تاكل، سلبية و نقر سبيكة الانكونيل (600) في حامض الكبريتيك

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A potentiostatic study of the behaviour of Inconel (600) in molar sulphuric acid has been carried out over the temperature range 293-313 K. Values have been established for the potentials and current densities of the corrosion, active-passive transition, passivity and transpassive states. For corrosion, the current density (ic) and potential (Ec) have been determined from well-defined Tafel lines. The potential and current density prior to the commencement of passivity have been obtained corresponding respectively to the critical potential (Ecr( and to the current density (icr) for the active-passive transition state. The passive range was defined by the respective potentials and current densities for passive film formation and dissolution. The dissolution point was correlated with transpassive potential (Et) and current density (it). All the estimated potentials and current densities for the various states were influenced by temperature and the presence of additives in the sulphuric acid. Additives such as nitric acid, thiourea and sodium chloride lowered the corrosion current density (ic) of the alloy while hydrochloric acid enhanced the value of ic. Addition of thiourea or sodium chloride or hydrochloric acid caused a shift in the corrosion potential (Ec) to less negative values while nitric acid shifted Ec to more negative potentials. The kinetic effect of the additives have been studies. Values of activation energy (E) were considered to be apparent and some negative values of E have been obtained with certain additives for the critical and passivity processes. Such negative E values were attributed to small values of true energies of activation together with relatively large exothermic enthalpies of such processes.


Article
Kinetic Model for Solute Diffusion in Liquid Membrane Systems
نموذج حركي لانتشار المذاب في انظمة الاغشية السائلة

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In this study, a mathematical model for the kinetics of solute transport in liquid membrane systems (LMSs) has been formulated. This model merged the mechanisms of consecutive and reversible processes with a “semi-derived” diffusion expression, resulting in equations that describe solute concentrations in the three sections (donor, acceptor and membrane). These equations have been refined into linear forms, which are satisfying in the special conditions for simplification obtaining the important kinetic constants of the process experimentally.


Article
Local wheat peel as a solid surface to remove Azure B dye from aqueous solution:Equilibrium isotherms and thermodynamic study
قشور الحنطة المحلية سطح صلب لازالة صبغة الازور B من محلولها المائي : دراسة التوازن والثرموديناميك

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In this research local wheat peel was used as an adsorbent surface for removal of Azure B (AB) dye from the aqueous solution. The adsorption process was performed at different experimental parameters, equilibrium time, temperature, ionic strength and solution pH. The isotherms of adsorption are of H-type as compared with Giles curves and the adsorption data were coincide with Freundlich equation. The adsorption kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo- first and second order kinetic models. The effect of temperature was studied and the amount of dye adsorbed was found to increase with the increasing of temperature from 25 to 50 oC. The values of thermodynamic functions like enthalpy and entropy have been estimated. The quantity of adsorbed dye on the wheat peel increase according to the sequence follows: pH 9.3˃ 8 ˃ 7 ˃6 ˃5.2.The adsorption phenomenon is influenced by the sodium chloride concentration of solution. The obtained data refer to a decrease in amount of Azure B adsorbed in the existence of electrolyte.


Article
Adsorption and Thermodynamic Study of Direct Blue 71 Dye on to natural Flint Clay from Aqueous Solution
دراسة الامتزاز والثرموديناميك لصبغه الازرق المباشر 71 على سطح طين الفلنت الطبيعي من محلولها المائي

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The remove of direct blue (DB71) anionic dye on flint clay in aqueous solution was investigated by using a batch system for various dye concentrations. The contact time, pH, adsorbent dose, and temperature was studied under batch adsorption technique. The data of adsorption equilibrium fit with isotherm Langmuar and Freiundlich ,when the correlation coefficient used to elucidate the best fitting isotherm model. The thermodynamic parameters such as, ∆Hº ,∆Sº and ∆Gº. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the sorption of the dyes onto Flint clay was endothermic and spontaneous.


Article
Preparation and Characterization of Bimetallic Catalyst (NiO – CoO) for Desulfurization of Gas Oil
تحضير وتمييز عـامـل مساعـد ثنائـي الـمـعـــدن ( NiO –CoO ) لازالة الـكـبـريــت من زيت الغاز

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In this study NiO - CoO bimetallic catalysts are prepared with two Ni/Co ratios (70:30 and 80: 20) using the precipitation method of nitrate salts. The effects of Ni /Co ratio and preparation methods on the catalyst are analyzed by using different characterization techniques, i.e. atomic absorption (AA) , XRD, surface area and pore volume measurements according to the BET method . The results indicate that the best catalyst is the one containing the percentage of Ni :Co ( 70 : 30 ). Experiments indicate that the optimal conditions to prepare catalyst are stirring for three hours at a temperature of 60oC of the preparation , pH= (8-9) , calcination temperature at 400oC for two hours using the impregnation method . The catalyst activity is studied through the application in the process of oxidative desulfurization of gas oil fuel . The optimal conditions for deep oxidative desulfurization processes are : catalysts 3% , 2 gm. Na2 CO3 , refluxe time 3 hours at 400 C , using a mechanical stirrer at moderate speed (700 rpm), the volume ratio of gas oil : H2O2 : acetic acid is 10: 1: 0.5 and extracted with 1:1 ratio of acetonitrile to the gas oil for three times . The results indicate that the catalysts are efficient to remove sulfur from gas oil depending on temperature, time, concentration of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 30 % and solvent used for extraction. The efficiency of the best catalyst gives a maximum sulfur removal reaching 68.97%.


Article
Complexes of Some Transition Metal with 2-Benzoyl thiobenzimidazole and 1,10-Phenanthroline and Studying their Antibacterial Activity
معقدات بعض الفلزات الانتقالية مع 2- بنزويل ثايوبنزاميدازول و1-10 فينانثرولين ودراسة فعاليتها المضادة للبكتريا

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Mixed ligands of 2-benzoyl Thiobenzimiazole (L1) with 1,10-phenanthroline (L2) complexes of Cr(III) , Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were prepared. The ligand and the complexes were isolated and characterized in solid state by using FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, 1H, 13C-NMR, flame atomic absorption, elemental micro analysis C.H.N.S, magnetic susceptibility , melting points and conductivity measurements. 2-Benzoyl thiobenzimiazole behaves as bidenetate through oxygen atom of carbonyl group and nitrogen atom of imine group. From the analyses Octahedral geometry was suggested for all prepared complexes. A theoretical treatment of ligands and their metal complexes in gas phase were studied using HyperChem-8 program, moreover, ligands in gas phase also has been studied using Gaussian program (GaussView Currently Available Version (5.0.9) along with Gaussian 09 which was the latest in the Gaussian series of programs). The antibacterial activity of the prepared complexes have been determined and compared with that of the ligand and the standard metronidazole.


Article
Preparation and Spectroscopic Studies of Some Metal Ion Complexes of 2-((4-Formyl-3-Hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl) Diazenyl) Benzoic Acid
تحضير ودراسة طيفية لبعض معقدات ايونات المعادن للـ 2-((4-فورمايل-3-هيدروكسي نفثالين-2-ايل) ثنائي زنيل) بنزويك اسد

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New azo ligand 2-((4-formyl-3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl) diazenyl) benzoic acid (H2L) was synthesized from the reaction of 2-aminobenzoic acid and2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde. Monomeric complexes of this ligand, of general formulae [MII(L)(H2O)] with (MII = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd, Cd and Hg ) were reported. The compounds were isolated and characterized in solid state by using 1H-NMR, FT-IR, UV–Vis and mass spectral studies, elemental microanalysis, metal content, magnetic moment measurements, molar conductance and chloride containing. These studies revealed tetrahedral geometries for all complexes except PdII complex is Square planar. The study of complexes formation via molar ratio of (M:L) as (1:1). Theoretical treatments of compounds in gas phase were studied using Hyper Chem-8 program has.


Article
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization for Some Metal ion Complexes with 2-Hydroxy-3-((5-Mercapto-1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2-yl)Diazenyl)-1-Naphthaldehyde
تحضير وتشخيص طيفي لبعض معقدات ايونات المعادن مع 2-هايدروكسي-3-((5-ميركبتو-1،3،4-ثايادزايازول-2-يل) -ثنائي زينيل) -1-نفثالديهايد

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New metal ion complexes were synthesized with the general formula; K[PtLCl4], [ReLCl4] and K[ML(Cl)2] where M = Pd(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II), from the Azo ligand (HL) [2-Hydroxy-3-((5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)diazenyl)-1-naphth aldehyde] (HL) the ligand was synthesized from (2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde) and (5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol). The ligand and its metal complexes are characterized by phisco- chemical spectroscopic techniques (FT.IR, UV-Vis and Mass spectra, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, Atomic Absorption, Chloride contain and magnetic susceptibility). The spectral data suggest that the (HL) behaves as a bidentate ligand in all complexes. These studies revealed tetrahedral geometries for all metal complexes, except square planar for Pd(II) complex and except octahedral geometry for Pt(IV) and Re(V) complexes. The study of complexes formation via molar ratio of (M:L) as (1:1). Theoretical treatment of this ligand and its metal complexes in gas phase using Hyper chem.8 was preformed.


Article
Preparation and Physico-Chemical Investigation Studies for the of Mn(II),Co(II),Ni(II) and Cu(II) Metal Complexes with Ligand 2- Hydroxybenzaldine Urea
تحضير ودراسة الفحوصات الفيزيائيه والكيميائيه لمعقدات الايونات Mn(II) ، Co(II)،Ni(II) وCu(II) مع الليكاند 2- هيدروكسي بنزيلدين يوريا

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Some of metal compounds have been synthesized of record ligand from aldehid interaction of a substance which is salicyladehyde with another material which is urea. During the analysis of the metal component, The prepared complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR ,UV-visible , conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. this confirms the ratio[1:1] between the metal and ligand. It is found that theortical values agree with practical values All the studied complexes are suggested as an octahedral stereochemistry.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Cu(I)-Folic Acid Complex A Theoretical and Experimental Study
دراسه نظرية وعملية لتحضير وتشخيص معقد النحاس الاحادي مع حامض الفوليك

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Copper (I) complex containing folic acid ligand was prepared and characterized on the basis of metal analyses, UV-VIS, FTIR spectroscopies and magnetic susceptibility. The density functional theory (DFT) as molecular modeling calculations was used to determine the donor atoms of folic acid ligand which appear clearly at oxygen atoms binding to hydrogen. Detection of donation sights is supported by theoretical parameters such as geometry, mulliken population, mulliken charge and HOMO-LUMO gap obtained by DFT calculations.


Article
Preparation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of some Lanthanide (ΙΙΙ) ions Complexes with 3-(1-methyl-2-benzimidazolylazo)-Tyrosine
تحضير, تشخيص , ودراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لبعض معقدات ايونات اللانثانات (ΙΙΙ) مع 3- (1- مثيل – 2- بنزايميدازوليل آزو ) تايروسين

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A series of lanthanide metal (ΙΙΙ) complexes have been prepared from the new azo ligand, 3-(1-methyl-2-benzimidazolylazo)-Tyrosine (MBT). The structural feature were confirmed on the basis of their elemental analysis, metal content, molar conductance, magnetic measurement, FTIR, 1 HNMR and UV-Vis spectra studies. The isolated complexes were found to have a mole ratio (1:2) (metal:ligand) stoichiometry with the general formula [Ln(MBT)2]Cl (Ln(ΙΙΙ) = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd). The chelates were found to have octahedral structures. The FTIR spectra shows that the ligand (MBT) is coordinated to lanthanide ions as a N, N, O-tridentate anion via benzimidazole nitrogen, azo nitrogen and oxygen of hydroxyl after deprotonation. Complexes formation in solution were performed after fixing the optimum pH, molar concentration and time. Beer's low was obeyed over a range (7-9x10-5) with high molar absorptivity for all the prepared complexes solutions. Stability Constant and Gibbis free energy were also determined. The ligand (MBT) and its prepared complexes were screened invitro against two types of selected bacteria.


Article
Density functional theory study of molecular structure, Electronic properties, UV–Vis spectra on coumarin102.
دراسة نظرية دالة الكثافة لتركيب الجزيئي والخصائص الالكترونية و الطيف المرئي والأشعة فوق البنفسجية للكومارين102

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The various properties of the ground and excited electronic states of coumarins 102 using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was calculated by the B3LYP density functional model with 6-31G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 09 W program. Spectral characteristics of coumarin102 have been probed into by methods of experimental UV-visible, and quantum chemistry. The UV spectrum was measured in methanol. The optimized structures, total energies, electronic states (HOMO- LUMO), energy gap, ionization potentials, electron affinities, chemical potential, global hardness, softness, global electrophilictity, and dipole moment were measured. We find good agreement between experimental data of UV spectrum and TDDFT excitationenergies.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Study of Antibacterial Activity of a New Schiff Base Ligand and Its Complexes with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) Metal Ions
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة الفعالية البكتيرية لقاعدة شف جديدة لليكاند ومعقداته مع الايونات الفلزية كوبلت (ІІ), نيكل (ІІ), نحاس(ІІ), كادميوم(ІІ) و زئبق(ІІ)

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Some coordination complexes of Co(ІІ), Ni(ІІ), Cu(ІІ), Cd(ІІ) and Hg(ІІ) are reacted in ethanol with Schiff base ligand derived from of 2,4,6- trihydroxybenzophenone and 3-aminophenol using microwave irradiation and then reacted with metal salts in ethanol as a solvent in 1:2 ratio (metal: ligand). The ligand [H4L] is characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, C.H.N, 1H-NMR,13C-NMR, and mass spectra. The metal complexes are characterized by atomic absorption, infrared spectra, electronic spectra, molar conductance, (C.H.N for Ni(ІІ) complex) and magnetic moment measurements. These measurements indicate that the ligand coordinates with metal (ІІ) ion in a tridentate manner through the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the ligand, octahedral structures are suggested for these complexes. Antibacterial activity of the ligand [H4L] and its complexes are studied against (gram positive) and (gram negative) bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus]. The proposed structure of the complexes using the program, Chem office (2006) and the general formula has been given for the prepared ligand complexes K2[M(H2L)2].


Article
Gelatin Grafted Methyl Nadic Anhydride and Substitution With Salbutamol
تطعيم الجيلاتين بحامض المثيل نادك اللامائي وتعويضه بالسالبيوتامول

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Gelatin a promising biomaterial which is useful and interesting natural polymer which offer possibilities of chemical modification through grafted copolymerization with an saturated acid anhydride such as methyl nadic anhydride formatted gelatin –g- methyl nadic anhydride copolymer (A1), then modified to its corresponding polymer (A2) by substituted salbutamol as useful derivative as biomaterial .the prepared drug biopolymer was characterization by FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis was studied controlled drug release was measured in different buffer solution at 37C0 .


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Monemer and Polymers Containing Hetero Cyclic Rings With Study of Their Physical Properties.
تحضير و تشخيص بعض المونيمرات و البوليمرات الجديده الحاوية على حلقات غير متجانسة مع دراسة الخصائص الفيزيائية

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Number of new polyester and polyamide are prepared as derivatives from 5,5`-(1,4-phenylene)-bis-(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-amine) [C1], three series of heterocyclic compounds were synthesized.The first series includes the Schiff base [C2] prepared from the reaction between compound [C1] with p-hydroxy benzaldehyde in presence of acetic acid and absolute ethanol , then these derivatives have reaction with maleic anhydride , phthalic anhydride and sodium azide, respectively to obtain the compounds [C3-5] contaning (oxazepine and tetrazole) rings.The third series of compounds [C1-5] has transformed to their polymers [C6-15] by reaction with adipoyl chloride and glutroyl chloride , respectively. The reaction was followed by T.L.C and identified by FT-IR , 1H-NMR ,C.H.N analysis , softening point , viscosity, TGA , DSC and X-ray.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Polymer from Bisacodyl A
تحضير وتشخيص بوليمر جديد من البسكوديل أ

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A new series polymers was synthesized from reaction starting material Bisacodyl A or [(2-Pyridinylmethylene) di-4, 1-phenylene di acetate] with hydrogen bromide, then the products were polymerized by addition polymerization from used adipoyl and glutaroyl chloride. The structure of these compounds was characterized by FT-IR, melting points, TLC, X-Ray, DSC and 1H-NMR for starting material. These compounds were also screened for their antibacterial activistsز


Article
Photostability Study of Some Modified Poly(vinyl chloride) Containing Pendant Schiff’s Bases
دراسة التثبيت الضوئي لبعض بوليمرات متعدد كلوريد الفاينيل والحاوية على مجاميع متدلية من قواعد شف

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The polymers modified Poly(vinyl chloride) differ in their tendency to photo oxidation comparing with that unmodified. It has been studied Photostability for modified Poly(vinyl chloride) chains using Schiff’s bases derivative of (5-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole-2-thiol) in a manner casting of plastic chips with thickness (40) in a solvent Tetrahydrofuran. It has been determined the effectiveness Photostability of these modified polymers through the photo degradation rate constant for photostabilizer (kd) for the modified Poly (vinyl chloride). Attributed efficiency of these Poly(vinyl chloride) chips in Photostability by replace the atom Cl Poly(vinyl chloride) chains ends more stable than light stabilizer.


Article
Synthesis of Polyimides derived from 2,6-diamino-4-methyl-1,3,5-triazine
تحضير بولي ايمايدات جديدة مشتقة من 2، 6 – داي امينو -4- مثيل 1، 3، 5- ترايازين

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This work included synthesis of several new polymers of polyacryloyl chloride in two steps . The first step the included the reaction of N-( sub. or un sub. benzoyl and sub. or un sub. acetyl ) amidyl sub. 2,6- diamino -4-methyl-1,3,5-triazine (1-5) by condensation of many substituted acid chlorides with 2,6- diamino -4-methyl-1,3,5-triazine . While the second step included the reaction of polyacryloyl chloride with the produced compounds (1-5) in step (1) in the presence amount triethyl amine (Et3N) to obtain new polyimides (6-10). The prepared compounds were characterized by UV. , FT-IR, and some of them by 1H-NMR and 13C- NMR spectroscopy.


Article
Biodegradation Studies in Vitro of Novel Poly(adipic anhydride-co-mannitol)-N-maleoyl Chitosan Networks
دراسات التحلل الأحيائي في المختبر لشبكات بولي(أنهيدريد الأدبيك-بوليمر مشترك-مانيتول)-N- كيتوسان الملويل

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In this work, novel copolymers of poly(adipic anhydride-co-mannitol) were synthesized by melting condensation polymerization of poly(adipic anhydride) with five percentages of mannitol sugar, 1 to 5 Wt.%. These copolymers were purified and then, characterized by FT-IR, which was proved that the cross-linking reaction was caused by nucleophilic attack of mannitol hydroxyl group to acidic anhydride groups of poly(adipic anhydride) backbone and new ester groups were formed and appeared. Also, modified organic-soluble chitosan, N-maleoyl-chitosan, were synthesized by grafting reaction of chitosan with maleic anhydride in DMF as solvent, and it was also purified and characterized by FT-IR. Biodegradation in vitro of the IPNs of poly(adipic anhydride-co-mannitol)-N-maleoyl chitosan networks were evaluated by hydrolytic degradation studies at three different media (PBS, SIF and SGF) for 18 weeks with 92% as maximum degradation and it was found that minimum weight loss of IPNs was noticeably shown in SIF. In addition, hydrolytic degradation percent was decreased with increasing mannitol proportions.


Article
Sizing and Thermal Stability of Prepared Tetraaminophthalocyaninatocopper(II) Derivatives-grafted Polymers
التحجيم والثبات الحراري لرباعي أمينوفثالوسيانين نحاس(II) المحضرة والمطعمة بالبوليمرات

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Different polymers were prepared by condensation polymerization of sebacic anhydride and adipic anhydride with ethylene glycol and poly(ethylene glycol). Their number average molecular weights were determined by end group analysis. Then, they were grafted on the prepared phthalocyaninatocopper(II) compounds with the general formula (NH2)4PcCu(II) having amino groups of 3,3',3'',3'''- or 4,4',4'',4'''- positions. All prepared polymers, compounds, and phthalocyaninatocopper(II)-grafted polymers were characterized by FTIR. The sizing measurements were carried out in 3,3',3'',3'''- (NH2)4PcCu(II) and 4,4',4'',4'''- (NH2)4PcCu(II) compounds with and without grafting polymers. The results showed that the grafting process led to decreasing in particle size and increasing in surface area. The grafting process was reflected positively on the thermal degradation of 3,3',3'',3'''- (NH2)4PcCu(II) and 4,4',4'',4'''- (NH2)4PcCu(II) grafted polymers. They had higher thermal stability accompanied with higher char residue and T50% weight loss with 3,3',3'',3'''-(NH2)4PcCu(II) and their grafted polymers being the best.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Mannich Bases Derived from 7-hydroxy-4-methyl Coumarin
تحضير وتشخيص قواعد مانخ جديدة مشتقة من 7-هيدروكسي-4-مثيل كومارين

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Coumarin is a natural substance isolated from different plants. It belonges to a group of benzobyrones which consists of a benzene ring joined to a pyrone nucleus. In the present research, a new series of coumarin derivatives were formed. Compound (1) (7-hydroxy-4-methyl Coumarin) was converted into 4-methylquinolin-2(H) derivative (2) by reaction with acetamide, and then reaction of (2) with thiosemicarbazide in ethanol leads to the synthesize of hydrazincarbothioamide derivative (3).The reaction of (3) with ethylchloroacetate in presence of sodium acetate leads to closure ring to get [(1-(5-oxo-2-thioxoimidazolidin-1-ylimino) ethyl)]quinolin-2(1H)-one (4). Mannich bases were prepared through the reaction of (4) with primary amines to form compounds (5-6). New coumarin derivatives were characterized by their physical properties and various spectral analysis like: FTIR, 1HNMR spectra and GC-Mass spectrum for some of them.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel Oxazine, Thiazine and Pyrazol Derivatives
تحضير وتشخيص بعض مشتقات الثايازين, الاوكسازين و البايرازول الجديدة

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In this paper, some chalcone derivatives (C1, C2) were synthesized based on the reaction of equal amount of substituted acetophenone and substituted banzaldehyde in basic medium. Oxazine and thiazine derivatives were prepared from the reaction of chalcones (C1-C2) with urea and thiourea respectively in a basic medium. Pyrazole derivatives were prepared based on the reaction of chalcones with hydrazine mono hydrate or phenyl hydrazine in the presence of glacial acetic acid as a catalyst. The new synthesized compounds were identified using various physical techniques like1 H-NMR and FT-IR spectra.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Morpholine Derivatives
تحضير وتشخيص بعض المشتقات الجديدة للمورفولين

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In this paper a new series of morpholine derivatives was prepared by reacting the morpholine with ethyl chloro acetate in the presence triethylamine as a catalyst in benzene gave morpholin-N-ethyl acetate(1) which reacted with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol, and gave morpholin-N-ethyl acetohydrazide (2) . Morpholin-N-aceto semithiocarbazide (3) were prepared by reacting compound(2) with ammonium thiocyanate , concentrated hydrochloric acid and ethanol as a solvent .Compound (3) reacted with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid to give 5-(morpholin-N-methylene)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (4) .The new series of 1,2,4-triazol derivatives (5-8) was synthesized by reaction of compound(4) with formaldehyde , DMF as a solvent and different secondary amines. Preparation of new 1,2,4-triazoline derivatives (9) by reaction compound (4) with bromo acetic acid . Reaction of compound (9) with different aromatic aldehyde and dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent obtained compounds (10-13).


Article
Synthesis, Characterization of Derivatives Tetrazoles for Trimethoprim Drug
تحضير وتشخيص (مشتقات التترازول لدواء التراي مثبريم)

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Abstract

The present work involved synthesis of serval new substituted tetrazole via Schiff bases for trimethoprim drug by two steps. The first step involved direct reaction of different ketones and aldehydes with trimethoprim producing the corresponding Schiff bases (1-10), whereas the second step, involved preparation new tetrazoles derivatives (11-20) through reaction of the ready Schiff bases (in the first step) with sodium azidein in dioxin. The prepared compounds were characterized by UV, FT-IR, and some of them by 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and physical properties.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Heterocyclic Compounds from 2, 5- dimercapto -1, 3, 4-Thiadiazole and Their Resins
تحضيروتشخيص مركبات حلقية غير متجانسة جديده من 2،5- ثنائي مركبتو - 1، 3، 4 – ثايادايازول وراتنجاتها

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In this research, a new 1, 3, 4-Thiadiazole derivatives have been synthesized by many heterocyclic reactions. Starting from (2, 5 – dimercapto -1, 3, 4-Thiadiazole) a variety of derivatives have been synthesis. Compound (1) was synthesized by the reaction of hydrazine hydrate with carbon disulphide in absolute ethanol. The compound (1) was reacted with 1, 2-dibromoethane in presence of alkali ethanol to give the compound (2). The compound (3) was formed from the reaction of compound (2) with hydrazine hydrate. Schiff base (4) was obtained by reacting of compound (3) with the compound (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde) in absolute ethanol. A variety of phenolic Schiff base (Methylolic, Etheric, and Epoxy) derivatives have been synthesized. Methylolic derivative was synthesized by the reaction of Schiff base (4) with formaldehyde in tetrahydrofuran (THF). Etheric derivative was formed from the reaction of a methylolic Schiff base (5) with saturated alcohol (Methanol).Epoxy derivative was synthesized by the reaction of epichlorohydrine with etheric derivative (6) .The last step of this research was the preparation of a composite material from mixing the Epoxy resin derivative(7), TiO2and morpholine via ring opening. All these derivatives were verified by using (FT-IR, UV) spectra photometer and 1H-NMR spectra. Also, these derivatives were characterized using elemental analysis (C.H.N.S) .


Article
Synthesis, Characterization of some New 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole derivatives based on 4- amino benzoic acid
تحضير وتشخيص بعض المشتقات الجديدة من 1,3,4 اوكسادايازول مبنيا على 4 امينوحامض البنزويك

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In this research various of 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole (Schiff base, oxo-thiazolidine , and other compounds) were synthesized from 2,5-di(4,4′- amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole ) which use quently synthesized from mixture of 4-amino benzoic acid and hydrazine in the presence of polyphosphorus acid. The synthesized compounds were characterized by using some Spectral data (UV, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR).


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Nucleoside Analogues from Substituted Benzimidazole via 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition
تحضير وتشخيص بعض مماثلات النيكليوسيدات الجديدة من معوضات البنزيميدازول بواسطة تفاعلات 1,3- اضافة ثنائية القطب الحلقية

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This paper includes the synthesis of some new nucleoside analogues starting with 2-substituted benzimidazole derivative (7-9), that synthesized by condensation of O-phenylenediamine with p-chloro benzaldehyde and two substituted benzoic acid , which on nucleophilic substitution with propargyl bromide gave a new N-substituted compounds (10-12). D-Fructose and D-galactose were chosen as a sugar moiety which were protected, brominated and azotated to give azido sugars (5) and (6), then they were subjected to 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction with N-substuted compounds afforded bloked nucleoside analoges (13-16), which after hydrolysis gave our target the free nucleoside analogues (17-20). All prepared compounds were identified by FT-IR and some of them with 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.


Article
Synthesis of New Some Imidazole Derivatives Containing β-Lactam Ring
تحضير بعض مشتقات الاميدازول الجديدة التي تحتوي حلقة-βلاكتام

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In this work 5-methylene-yl - (2-methy –oxazole-4-one) (1H) imidazole (1) were synthesized from the reaction of L-Histidine with acetic anhydride and which converted to the of 5-methylene-yl-(2-methyl 3-amino imidazole-4-one)-1H-imidazole (2) by reaction with hydrazine hydrate. Schiff bases (3-6) were synthesized from the reaction of compound (2) with different aromatic aldehyde. Reaction of compounds (3-6) with chloroacetyl chloride gives azetidinone one derivatives (7-10). These compounds were characterized by FT-IR and some of them with 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.


Article
Synthesis of New Nucleoside Analogues From Benzimidazole and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activity
تحضير مماثلات نيو كلوسيدات جديدة من إلبنزايمدازول ودراسة فعاليتها البايولوجية

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Our goal in this research, some new nucleoside analogues was synthesized. Starting from ∝-D glucose which was converted to per acetylated β-D gluco pyronoside then converted to active from(1-Bromo Sugar (2) as a sugar moiety.The base moiety 2-substituted benzimidazole was prepared from condensation of phenylene diamine with different aromatic aldehydes, which were subjected to amino alkylation via Mannich reaction forming new nucleobase derivatives. Condensation of nucleobase with bromo sugar through nucleophilic substitution of anomeric carbon with nitrogen forming new protected nucleoside analogues then hydrolyzed with sodium methoxide in methanol to obtain our target, the free nucleoside analogues. All prepared compound were identified by FT-IR Spectroscopy and some of them with H1 –NMR and C13-NMR Spectroscopy. The synthesized nucleoside analogues were screened for their antibacterial activity in vitro against four types of bacteria including, Bacillus Staphylococcus, aureus (Gram Positive), E.Coli and Pseudoman as (Gram Negative).Also were screened against four types of Fungi (Aspergines flurs, Aspergillus fumgntnts, Aspergillus niger and pencillum).


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of New Mesomorphic Azo Compounds and Study their Photoluminesecence Properties
تحضير وتشخيص مركبات بلورية سائلة عالية التبادل

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The preparation of a new Azo compounds of highly conjugated dimeric and polymeric liquid crystal to achieve the crystalline characteristics Which have structures assigned based on elemental analysis, IR 1HNMR and CHNS-O while mesogenic properties have been set for DSC and hot-stage polarizing optical microscopy. The compounds show enantiotropicnematic phase being displayed. The compounds show photoluminescence properties in the organic solution at room temperature, with the fluorescence band centered around 400 nm.


Article
Synthesis and Evaluation Antibacterial Activity of Some New Substituted 5-Bromoisatin Containing Five, Six Heterocyclic Ring
تحضير وتقدير الفعالية المضادة للبكتريا لبعض معوضات 5-بروموايساتين الجديدة الحاوية على حلقات خماسية, سداسية غير متجانسة

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This research includes the synthesis of some new different heterocyclic derivatives of 5-Bromoisatin. New sulfonylamide, diazine, oxazole, thiazole and 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of 5-Bromoisatin have been synthesized. The synthesis process started by the reaction of 5-Bromoisatin with different reagents to obtain schiff bases of 5-Bromoisatin intermediate compounds(1, 8, 19) by using glacial acetic acid as a catalyst in three routes. The first route, 5-Bromoisatin reacted with p-aminosulfonylchloride to product compound(1), then converted to sulfonyl amide derivatives(2-7) by the reaction of compound(1) with different substituted primary aromatic amine in absolute ethanol. The second route includes the reaction of 5-Bromoisatin reacted with ethyl glycinate to give 5-bromo-3-(Ethyl imino acetate)-2-oxo indole(8), which undergo react with hydrazine hydrate 80% to obtain hydrazine derivatives(9) that react with different acid anhydrides to obtain diazine derivatives(10-14). Also compound(8) reacts with urea and thiourea to give compounds(15,16) which undergo cyclization with p-bromophenacylbromide in absolute ethanol as a solvent to obtain oxazole (17) and thiazole (18), respectively. The third route included the reaction of 5-Bromoisatin with p-phenylenediamine in ethanol to obtain compound(19) which is converted to new substitutes 1,2,3-triazole derivatives(22,23) by diazotation of compound(19) and treating the resulted salt(20) with sodium azid, then acetylaceton or ethylacetoacetate, respectively. Newly synthesized compounds were identified by spectral methods. (FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and measurements of some of its physical properties and also some specific reactions. Furthermore the effects of the synthesized compounds were studied on some strains of bacteria.


Article
Synthesis of New N-Substituted Phenoxazine Derivatives
تحضير مشتقات جديدة للفينوكسازين معوضة على ذرة النتروجين

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This work comprises the synthesis of new phenoxazine derivatives containing N-substituted phenoxazine starting from phenoxazine (1). Synthesis of ethyl acetate phenoxazine (2) through the reaction of phenoxazine with ethylchloroacetate, which reacted with hydrazine hydrate to give 10-aceto hydrazide phenoxazine (3), then reacted with formic acid to give 10-[N-formyl acetohydrazide] phenoxazine (4). Reaction of compound (4) with phosphorous pentaoxide or phosphorus pentasulphide to gave 10-[N-methylene-1,3,4-oxadiazole] phenoxazine (5) and 10-[N-methylene-1,3,4-thiadiazole] phenoxazine (6).


Article
Adiponectin , β-Cell Dysfunction in Iraqi Women with Gestational Diabetes
الاديبونكتين ,الاختلال الوظيفي لخلايا بيتا عند النساء العراقيات المصابات بسكري الحمل

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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a complication of gestation that is characterized by impaired glucose tolerance with first recognition during gestation. It develops when β- cell of pancreas fail to compensate the diminished insulin sensitivity during gestation. This study aims to investigate the relationship between mother adiponectin level and β- cell dysfunction with development gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other parameters in the last trimester of pregnancy. This study includes (80) subjects ( pregnant women) in the third trimester of pregnancy, (40) healthy pregnant individuals as control group aged between (17 - 42) years and (40) gestational diabetes mellitus patients with aged between (20 - 42) years. The following biochemical investigation is studied: oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), adiponectin , insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP),body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment- insulin resistance (HOMA – IR). The adiponectin levels are significantly lesser in females who develop GDM than the control group (P≤0.01), while the insulin and OGTT concentrations were significantly higher in females with GDM than control group (P≤0.01).The concentrations of CRP are non significantly different between the females who develop GDM and the control group. Conclusions: Lower adiponectin concentrations are associated with an increased risk of the development of gestational diabetes mellitus and females, who develop gestational diabetes mellitus, have higher levels of insulin resistance from normal females, Obesity is a shape of persistent low grade inflammation which causes elevated concentrations of C- reactive protein.


Article
Biochemical Characterization for Lipid Synthesis in Aspergillus niger
التوصيف الكيميائي الحياتي لانتاج الدهون في فطر الاسبارجيلس

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A niger, a fungus which doesn't have high ability to production lipid, this fungus has been select to investigate the non oleaginicity. In this search, there are explorations about: i) growth profile ii) enzymes profile iii) isoforms. Growth profile shows that this fungus doesn't have ability to accumulate lipid more than 6% while bio mass are around 10g/l in spite of the presence of glucose in the media till the end of cultivation time and excision of nitrogen within 24 hrs. In enzyme study, we investigate all lipogenic enzymes Malic enzyme (ME), Fatty acid synthase (FAS), ATP: Citrate lays (ACL), NAD+ isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD+ICDH), Glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), all these enzymes show, activities till the end of cultivation time including ACL which is regarded the key enzyme to differentiate between the two species oleaginous and non oleaginous. So, there is no main reason to non oleaginicity for this fungus. A further experiment has been done using Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to identify ME isoforms. The result of Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows multi isoforms (A, B, C, D & E), with low intensity of isoform E, the isoforms that may involve in lipid synthesis. We have now studied the biochemistry of A.niger grown under conditions designed to promote lipid accumulation and can now advance a coherent hypothesis to explain why A niger could not accumulate lipid more than 6%. So the absence of isoforme E is the main reason for non oleaginicity in A niger.


Article
Evaluation of Serum Malondialdehyde, Glutathione and Lipid Profile Levels in Iraqi Females with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
تقييم المستويات المصلية للمالونوثنائي الالديهايد و الكلوتاثيون وصورة الدهون الكاملة في النساء العراقيات المصابات بداء السكري من النوع الثاني

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This study is carried out on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to assess the lipid profile, malondialdehyde and glutathione. Our study is concerned with 51 (Iraqi Arab females) patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with 31 control subjects unified in age, sex and ethnic background. Lipid profile is measured by using commercially available kits, while the serum MDA and glutathione levels are measured by means of sandwich ELISA test using commercially available kits. Serum MDA is significantly higher (P<0.001) while glutathione is significantly lower (P<0.001) in type 2 diabetic patients when compared to the control. The normal levels of MDA (3.82 ± 0.77n mol/ml) and GSH (2.23 ± 0.54 µg/ml) recorded for the non-diabetic females are significantly (p<0.001) increased and depleted in the diabetic patients who record (6.78 ± 1.21 n mol/ml) and (1.29 ± 0.23 µg/ml) for MDA, GSH respectively. Parameters of lipid profile were significantly increase (P<0.001), while HDL cholesterol significantly decrease (P<0.001) in patients compared to the control group. The receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis of the forthcoming variations reveale the descending order of serum MDA (0.999), GSH (0.984), HDL (0.817), LDL (0.796), T.C (0.974), TG (0.727) & serum VLDL (0.722) showing a significant variation. In conclusion, the study shows low levels of GSH and high levels of MDA in diabetic patients indicating to an increased oxidative stress which is considered as the main cause to type 2 diabetes mellitus especially obese ones.


Article
Partial Purification and Characterization of Catalase from Banana Peels
تنقية جزئية وتوصيف لأنزيم الكتلايز من قشور الموز

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Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) is a well known enzyme which exists in almost all living creatures exposing to oxygen (such as plants, bacteria, and animals). It is a very necessary enzyme to protect the cell from oxidative detriment by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study is the partial purification and characterization of Catalase enzyme from Banana peels. In this study, fresh banana peels are treated with 70 % ethanol ,further separated with chloroform ,water and ethyl acetate respectively .The supernatant of the enzymatic sample which is treated with chloroform is loaded into gel filtration column with Sephadex G-100 (1.0 x 90 cm) equilibrated with pH7 buffer media (phosphate buffer 0.1 M). Kinetic studies of the purified enzyme activity are measured and characterized .The maximal activity (26.04 units/mg) of catalase is observed with chloroform buffer extraction. The kinetics of catalase; Michalis constant Km and maximum velocity Vmax is determined using Linweaver- Burk plot, The Km value for catalase (434.7mM), Vmax (100 m mole min -1). Characterization results demonstrate that the optimal pH for activity is (7.6). And the optimal temperature for activity is 30˚C .The present study indicates that Banana peels is a good source of catalase enzyme.


Article
Serum Cortisol and BMI in Chronic Diseases and Increased Early Cardiovascular Diseases
ارتباط الكورتيزول و كتلة الجسم للمرضى المتزايده بالامراض المزمنة و امراض الاوعية القلبية المبكر

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The purpose of this study was to examine the role of cortisol, and it is related to BMI in the chronic diseases which may increase early cardiovascular disease (CVD) in old Iraqi. The subjects were 116 adults, aged 51-71 years. Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumferences (WC) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) were used as a measure of adiposity. Investigation showed highly significant difference between patients in BMI ranges, most of male were in an obese weight range (48.5%), as well in women. There were no significant correlations between serum cortisol concentration and age both gender groups. While there were highly significant correlations between cortisol level and BMI, waist, and WHR (except in female subjects), also there were highly significant correlations between cortisol level and SBP,DBP (mmHg)only in male. In both groups, total cholesterol concentration, FBS, and A1C were significantly correlated with serum cortisol. Negatively correlated has been observed between serum cortisol and HDL-C in men but not in women. In men, the results of cortisol with CV risk factors (dyslipidemia, D.M, hypertension, at least 2 risk factors and three risk factors) show significant differences (p>0.0). In summary, there is a major association between cortisol levels, obese, and chronic diseases. These conclusions promote the hypothesis that the opposing effect of adiposity on the chronic diseases might be mediated by cortisol. This association could cause early development of cardiovascular diseases even in males.


Article
Study Oxidative Stress Statues In Hypertension Women
دراسة مستويات الاجهاد التأكسدي عند المريضات بارتفاع ضغط الدم

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The oxidative stress is result of unbalancing between oxidants and antioxidants in the body. Hypertension (HT) is a measure of average systolic blood pressure which created by the heart contracting, greater ≥140 mmHg or an average diastolic blood pressure, which is the heart fills, of ≥equal to 90 mmHg. The study is conducted on 28 female patients with HT from Ibn Al-nafese hospital in addition to 28 female control. The markers measured are albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-Hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Also electrophoresis study on extracted DNA with Fenton reaction was done. Results of this study show there are high significant decrease (p≤0.01) in albumin concentration of patient related to control, and there is a high significant increase (p≤ 0.01) in each MDA and 8-OHdG for patients group in comparison with controls. The Fenton reaction done shows that oxidant has degradation effect on DNA either in two minutes of reaction. It is concluded that oxidative stress in its parameter (albumin) and markers (MDA and 8-OHdG) is main chemical manifestation of group under study. And oxidants produced by Fenton can denature the DNA in vitro.


Article
Development of an Eco-Friendly Method for Iron Extraction and Determination in Pharmaceuticals Using Ciprofloxacin Drug as Chelating agent
تطوير طريقة صديقة للبيئة لاستخلاص وتقدير الحديد في المستحضرات الصيدلانية باستعمال دواء السيبروفلوكسين ككاشف تعقيد

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A method is developed for the determination of iron (III) in pharmaceutical preparations by coupling cloud point extraction (CPE) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The method is based on the reaction of Fe(III) with excess drug ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) in dilute H2SO4, forming a hydrophobic Fe(III)- CIPRO complex which can be extracted into a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114, and iron ions are determined spectrophotometrically at absorption maximum of 437 nm. Several variables which impact on the extraction and determination of Fe (III) are optimized in order to maximize the extraction efficiency and improve the sensitivity of the method. The interferences study is also considered to check the accuracy of the procedure. The results have shown that the preconcentration factor of 71 fold leading to obtain a limit of detection of 2.67 ng mL-1 with linear calibration range of 5-150 ng mL-1 (r=0.9998) and a superb sensitivity in terms of molar absorptivity of 1.13x106 L.mol-1.cm-1 . The mean percent recovery of 99.78±0.53% and the precision (RSD %) ranged from 1.96 to 0.76 are achieved. The developed method is applied to the determination of iron in four selected pharmaceutical drugs. The experimental values agree statistically with the quoted values stated by the manufacturer’ companies.


Article
Development of Green Method for Trace Determination of Bendiocarb in Real Samples Using Emerson
تطویر طریقة صدیقة للبیئة لتقدیر الاثر لمبید البیندیوكارب في عینات حقیقیة باستعمال تفاعل ایمرسون

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In this study, cloud point extraction combined with molecular spectrometry as an eco-friendly method is used for extraction, enrichment and determination of bendiocarb (BC) insecticide in different complex matrices. The method involved an alkaline hydrolysis of BC followed Emerson reaction in which the resultant phenol is reacted with 4-aminoantipyrene(4-AAP) in the presence of an alkaline oxidant of potassium ferric cyanide to form red colored product which then extracted into micelles of Triton X-114 as a mediated extractant at room temperature. The extracted product in cloud point layer is separated from the aqueous layer by centrifugation for 20 min and dissolved in a minimum amount of a mixture ethanol: water (1:1) followed the determination of BC by using spectrophotometry at a wavelength maximum of 470 nm. The most important parameters affecting the extraction and determination of BC are conducted via a classical optimization. Under the optimum conditions established , Beer’s law is obeyed in the range of 0.1-4 µg mL-1 while the optimum concentration ranges estimated by Ringbom’s plot was of 0.4-2.12 µg mL-1. The enrichment factor was of 59.87 fold leading to achieve the limit of detection of 0.076 μg mL-1. The proposed method gives superior sensitivity in terms of the molar absorptivity of 1.99x105 L mol-1 cm-1 and extraction efficiency of 98.0%. The established method is applied in the analysis of the spiked vegetables, orange, soil and water samples with appropriate concentration with BC standard.


Article
Removal Color Study of Toluidine Blue dye from Aqueous Solution by using Photo-Fenton Oxidation
دراسة ازالة صبغه التلودين الازرق من محلولها المائي بواسطه استخدام تقنية الفنتون

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The degradation of Toluidine Blue dye in aqueous solution under UV irradiation is investigated by using photo-Fenton oxidation (UV/H2O2/Fe+). The effect of initial dye concentration, initial ferrous ion concentration, pH, initial hydrogen peroxide dosage, and irradiation time are studied. It is found put that the removal rate increases as the initial concentration of H2O2 and ferrous ion increase to optimum value ,where in we get more than 99% removal efficiency of dye at pH = 4 when the [H2O2] = 500mg / L, [Fe + 2 = 150mg / L]. Complete degradation was achieved in the relatively short time of 75 minutes. Faster decolonization is achieved at low pH, with the optimal value at pH 4 .The concentrations of degradation dye are detected by spectrophotometer at λmax =626 nm. The order of photo degradation reaction under UV is the first order kinetics. The photo-Fenton degradation process was monitored by UV-visible spectrophotometer.


Article
Determination of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Iraqi Honey Bee and Compare with Others Types by High –Performance Liquid Chromatography
تقدير الفيتامينات القابلة للذوبان في الماء في عسل النحل العراقي ومقارنته مع انواع اخرى باستخدام كروموتغرافيا سائل عالي الاداء

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High-performance liquid chromatographic methods are used for the determination of water-soluble vitamins with UV-Vis. Detector. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic has been developed for determination of water-soluble vitamins. Identification of compounds was achieved by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with those of standards solution. Separation was performed on a C18 column, using an isocratic 30% (v/v) acetonitril in dionozed water as mobile phase at pH 3.5 and flow rate 1.0m/min. The method provides low detection and quantification limits, good linearity in a large concentration interval and good precision. The detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 0.025µg/ml. The accuracy of the method was tested by measuring average recovery values ranged between 94% - 101 %. For standerd solution, and 93%-99% of honey bee samples.


Article
A novel online coupling of ion selective electrode with the flow injection system for the determination of vitamin B1
منظومة مبتكرة حديثة لتقدير فيتامين ب1 باستخدام القطب الانتقائي الايوني المقترن بالحقن الجرياني

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Abstract

A simple, fast, selective of a new flow injection analysis method coupled with potentiometric detection was used to determine vitamin B1 in pharmaceutical formulations via the prepared new selective membranes. Two electrodes were constructed for the determination of vitamin B1 based on the ion-pair vitamin B1-phosphotungestic acid (B1-PTA) in a poly (vinyl chloride) supported with a plasticized di-butyl phthalate (DBPH) and di-butyl phosphate (DBP). Applications of these ion selective electrodes for the determination of vitamin B1 in the pharmaceutical preparations for batch and flow injection systems were described. The ion selective membrane exhibited a near-Nernstian slope values 56.88 and 58.53 mV / decade, with the linear dynamic range of vitamin B1 was 5 x 10-5- 1 x 10-2 and 1 x 10-4-1 x 10-2 mol.L-1, in batch and FIA, respectively. The limit of detection was 3.5 x 10-5 and 9.5 x 10-5 mol.L-1, with the percentage linearity 98.85 and 95.22 in batch and FIA, respectively. The suggested ion selective electrode has been utilized perfection in the determination of vitamin B1 in pharmaceutical formulations using batch and flow injection system, respectively.


Article
Preconcentration and determination of Metformine Hydrochloride in different samples by cloud point extraction coupling with uv-visible spectrophotometry
اعادة التركيز والتقدير الطيفي للميتفورمين هيدروكلوريد في نماذج مختلفة بواسطة الاستخلاص بنقطة الغيمة والمزدوجة مع مطيافية الاشعة فوق البنفسجية والمرئية

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Abstract

This work was influenced the separation and preconcentration steps were carried out to determination of metformin (MET) in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum samples. Complex formation method and cloud-point extraction (CPE) coupling with UV-Visible spectrophotometry were used to investigated of study target.The results has showed the best optical characteristic for calibration curve and statistical data which were obtained under optimum conditions. The first method is based on the reaction of MET with nickel (II) in alkaline medium an absorption maximum λ)max) at 434nm. ''Beer's low'' is obeyed in the concentration range (10-100µg.ml-1) with molar absorptivity of 3.9x103 L.mol-1.cm-1.The limit of detection and quantitation values were 2.37 and7.11 µg.ml-1 respectively. The second method based on extraction of traces amounts of MET using the cloud-point extraction (CPE). This method implicated for using of a nonionic surfactant (Triton x-114) as an extraction medium which was entrap the hydrophobic complex formed between MET and nickel(ii) in basic medium as reaction system for designing the CPE procedure. The optimum conditions were similar the first method expect the amount of surfactant which was 0.5 ml. The concentrations range of calibration curve from 3.5to100 µg.ml-1 and molar absorptivity of 1.2x104 L.mol-1.cm-1. In this method was access to less of concentrations in Limit of detection and quantitation which were 0.74and 2.22 µg.ml-1 respectively. The precise (RSD %) and accuracy (recovery %) of both methods were ranged between 0.24-0.47, 97.86-98.68 respectively. The data of two methods were appeared high acceptable with standered of British Pharmacopoeia through using statistic methods (f-test and t-test), that they may be used in analysis of MET.


Article
Flame Atomic Emission and Colorimetric Methods for the Determination of Cephalexin Monohydrate in Pharmaceutical Preparations
التقدير بطريقتي الانبعاث الذري اللهبي واللوني للسيفالكسين احادي الماء في مستحضراته الصيدلانية

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Abstract

We propose two simple, rapid, and convenient spectrophotometric methods which are described for the determination of cephalexin in bulk and its pharmaceutical preparations. They are based on the measurement of the flame atomic emission of potassium ion (in the first method) and colorimetric determination of the green colored solution at 610 nm formed after the reaction of cephalexin with potassium permanganate as an oxidant agent (in the second method) in basic medium. The working conditions of the methods are investigated and optimized. Beer's law plot shows a good correlation in the concentration range of 5-40μg ml-1. The detection limits are 2.573,2.814 μg ml-1 for the flame emission photometric method and 1.844,2.016 μg ml-1 for colorimetric methods for capsules and suspensions respectively.The methods are successfully applied to the determination of cephalexin in capsules and suspensions, and the obtained results are in good agreement with the label claim. No interference is observed from the commonly encountered additives and excipients.


Article
Determination of Doxycycline Hyclate by Batch and Reverse Flow Injection Analysis Based on the Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 3-Methyl-2-benzothiazolinone Hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH)
تقدير الدوكسي سايكلين هايكلات بطريقتي الدفعة والحقن الجرياني العكوس اعتمادآ على تفاعل الاكسدة والازدواج مع كاشف 3-مثيل-2-بينزوثايازولينون هايدرازون هايدروكلورايد

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Abstract

New, simple and sensitive batch and reverse FIA spectrophotometric methods for the determination of doxycycline hyclate in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations were proposed. These methods based on oxidative coupling reaction between doxycycline hyclate and 3-methylbenzothiazolinone-2-hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) in the presence ammonium ceric sulfate in acidic medium, to form green water-soluble dye that is stable and has a maximum absorbance at 626 nm. A calibration graph shows that a Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 1-80 and 0.5-110 μg.mL-1 of DCH for the batch and rFIA respectively with detection limit of 0.325 μg.mL-1 of DCH for r-FIA methods. All different chemicals and physical experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the colored product were carefully studied. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of DCH in pharmaceutical preparations.

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