Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2016 volume:22 issue:11

Article
Modeling of Comparative Performance of Asphalt Concrete under Hammer, Gyratory, and Roller Compaction
نمذجة مقارنة الأداء للخرسانة الاسفلتية المحدولة بحدل المطرقة و التراكمي، والحدل المدولب

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Abstract

The main objective of this study is to develop predictive models using SPSS software (version 18) for Marshall Test results of asphalt mixtures compacted by Hammer, Gyratory, and Roller compaction. Bulk density of (2.351) gm/cc, at OAC of (4.7) % was obtained as a benchmark after using Marshall Compactor as laboratory compactive effort with 75-blows. Same density was achieved by Roller and Gyratory Compactors using its mix designed methods. A total of (75) specimens, for Marshall, Gyratory, and Roller Compactors have been prepared, based on OAC of (4.7) % with an additional asphalt contents of more and less than (0.5) % from the optimum value. All specimens have been subjected to Marshall Test. Mathematical models obtained indicated that variation of Marshall Stiffness is based on the variation of air voids. All of these models depend on asphalt cement content too.


Article
Hydraulic Characteristics and Discharge of Canal Sluice Gate: Practical Approach
أقتراب تطبيقي للخصائص الهيدروليكية والتصريف للبوابة المنزلقة في القنوات

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Abstract

Simplifying formulas that are used for calculations and design are the aim of researchers. For present work, the approach to distinguish the flow under sluice gate was conducted in a laboratory. The extensive experimental program was done to collect fifty-four data points for both free and submerged flow conditions. The data included different discharges, gate openings, flow depths at upstream as well as the flow depths represent a tail water and at a contracted section for downstream. The collected data are analyzed according to a problematic that may encounter in the field, to present a more straightforward (but with acceptable accurate) practical features equations and charts. Based on the proposed formulas, five methodologies were introduced as a guide for site engineers and beneficiary farmers. As results, necessary calculations should be followed for the purpose of the successful management of surface irrigation project by an investment of the available water to be delivered with minimizing or preventing head losses to ensure acceptable irrigation efficiency up to the farthest outlets.


Article
Experimental Investigations on the Strength and Serviceability of Biaxial Hollow Concrete Slabs
تحريات عملية على مقاومة وصلاحية التشغيل للبلاطات الخرسانية المجوفة بمحورين

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Abstract

Biaxial hollow slab is a reinforced concrete slab system with a grid of internal spherical voids included to reduce the self-weight. This paper presents an experimental study of behavior of one-way prestressed concrete bubbled slabs. Twelve full-scale one-way concrete slabs of (3000mm) length with rectangular cross-sectional area of (460mm) width and (150mm) depth. Different parameters like type of specimen (solid or bubbled slabs), type of reinforcement (normal or prestress), range of PPR and diameter of plastic spheres (100 or 120mm) are considered. Due to the using of prestressing force in bubbled slabs (with ratio of plastic sphere diameter D to slab thickness H, D/H=0.67), the specimens showed an increase in ultimate load capacity ranging between (79.3% and 125%) and a decrease in the deflection at service load of about (9.8% to 12%) with respect to the control bubbled reinforced concrete slab. Also, it is found that, the bubbled slabs have about (79% to 86%) of the ultimate load capacity of a similar reference solid slab. At the same time the influence of voids present in the bubbled slabs is reflected in a decrease in the first cracking load by about (14.8% to 29.6%) in comparison with solid slabs.


Article
Ultrasound-Assisted Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel
إزالة الكبريت من الديزل بإستخدام الأكسدة المعززة بالموجات الفوق الصوتية

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Abstract

Due to the dramatic environmental impact of sulfur emissions associated with the exhaust of diesel engines, last environmental regulations for ultra-low-sulfur diesel require a very deep desulfurization (up to 15 ppm), which cannot be met by the conventional hydrodesulfurization units alone. The proposed method involves a batch ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAODS) of a previously hydrotreated diesel (containing 480 ppm sulfur) so as to convert the residual sulfur-bearing compounds into their corresponding highly polar oxides, which can be eliminated easily by extraction with a certain highly polar solvent. The oxidizing system utilized was H2O2 as an oxidant, CH3COOH as a promoter, with FeSO4 as a catalyst; whereas acetonitrile was used as extractant. The major influential parameters related to UAODS process have been investigated, namely: ratio of oxidant/fuel, ratio of the promoter/oxidant, dose of catalyst, reaction temperature, and intensity of ultrasonic waves. Kinetics of the reaction has been also studied; it was observed that the UAODS of diesel fuels fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics under the best experimental conditions, whereas values of the apparent rate constant and activation energy were 0.373 min-1 and 24 KJ/mol, respectively. The oxidation treatment, in combination with ultrasonic irradiation, revealed a synergistic effect for diesel desulfurization. The experimental results showed that sulfur removal efficiency could amount to 98% at mild operating conditions (70 ○C and 1 bar). This indicates that the process is efficient and promising for the production of ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuels.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization Of CaMgO2 Nanoparticles Photocatalyst For the Decolorization Of Orange G Dye
تصنيع وتشخيص اكاسيد الكالسيوم/المغنيسيوم النانوية كعامل مساعد ضوئي لازالة صبغة الاورانج ج

Authors: Atheel Alwash أثيل علوش
Pages: 68-82
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Abstract

A series of heterogeneous basic catalysts of CaO, MgO and CaMgO2 at different calcination temperature were synthesized via solution combustion method. Different characterization techniques have been carried out to investigate the structure of the produced catalysts i.e. X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, morphology by atomic force microscope (AFM) and reflection using UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectra. The particles size analyzer revealed that the mixed oxide catalysts calcined at different calcination temperature possess smaller nano size particles compared to pure CaO. Moreover, the energy band gap was calculated based on the results of diffuse reflectance spectra. The energy band gap was reduced from 4.1 to 3.6 eV for the CaMgO2 catalyst calcined at 400 and 600 °C respectively compared to pure oxide catalysts. The higher decolorization efficiency was 100% after 60 min of photocatalytic reaction for CaMgO2 calcined at 600 °C compared to CaO and MgO with catalytic activity of 58% and 27% respectively.


Article
Automatically Maintain Climatic Conditions inside Agricultural Greenhouses
المحافظة تلقائيا على الظروف المناخية داخل البيوت الزراعية

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Abstract

In this work, a novel system is designed to remote monitor / automatic control of the temperature, humidity and soil moisture of the agricultural greenhouses. In the proposed system, the author used the mentioned sensors for monitoring the climatic conditions of the agricultural greenhouses; and the system makes a controlling process to fix the required parameters for plant growth by running / stopping the fan, air exchanger and irrigation devices when any changes happened in these parameters. The presented system is based on XBee protocol in the implemented wireless sensor star topology network (WSN) to monitor the agricultural greenhouses in real time, and used the GSM and Internet technologies to monitor the agricultural greenhouses from anywhere.


Article
Energy and Exergy Analyses of Heat Pump Cycle with Refrigerant Injection Technology
تحليل الطاقة وجودتها لمضخة حرارية ذات تقنية حقن مائع التثليج

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Abstract

The effect of refrigerant injection techniques on the performance of heat pump system based on exergy analysis was studied theoretically. Three refrigerant injection techniques were used; the first was achieved by injected vapour in volume ratios from 1 to 7% in the accumulator. The second was injection liquid refrigerant in the discharge line with the aid of Liquid Pressure Amplification (LPA) pump, with volume ratios from 1 to 10%. The third was a hybrid injection with volume ratios of injected vapour and liquid varied from 1 to 3% and 1 to 10%; respectively. The following improvements in cycle performance were observed. For vapour injection technique, the best ratio of injection was 5%, the exergy destruction reduced by 21% and exergy efficiency enhanced by 14.6%. For liquid injection technique the best ratio of injection was 6%, the reduction in exergy destruction was 34% while the exergy efficiency increased by about 21.4%. The hybrid injection technique increased the exergy efficiency by 23% when the volume ratio of vapour and liquid injections are 3% each. The effect of condensing pressure on the cycle performance was studied also. The optimum exergy efficiency of the cycle was 54.55% achieved when the condensing pressure was 15 bars.


Article
Effect of Electrical Discharge Machining and Shot Blast Peening Parameters on Fatigue Life of AISI D2 Die Steel
تأثير معاملات التشغيل بطريقة التفريغ الكهربائي وقذف الكرات السفعي على عمر الكلال لصلب AISI D2 القوالب

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Abstract

The present paper deals with studying the effect of electrical discharge machining (EDM) and shot blast peening parameters on work piece fatigue lives using copper and graphite electrodes. Response surface methodology (RSM) and the design of experiment (DOE) were used to plan and design the experimental work matrices for two EDM groups of experiments using kerosene dielectric alone, while the second was treated by the shot blast peening processes after EDM machining. To verify the experimental results, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to predict the EDM models for high carbon high chromium AISI D2 die steel. The work piece fatigue lives in terms of safety factors after EDM models were developed by FEM using ANSYS 15.0 software. The results appeared that the experimental fatigue safety factors (at 106 cycles) decreased by (11 %) after EDM using copper electrodes compared with as-received material and this value is higher by (3.35 %) when using graphite electrodes. The fatigue strength at the same number of cycles was (0.88) and (0.84) times the fatigue strength of as-received material for copper and graphite electrodes respectively. While fatigue strength and safety factors increased after EDM when increasing shot peening time, at the higher shot peening time is by (19.1 %) when using copper electrodes and by (23.26 %) when using graphite electrodes.


Article
Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes for Treating Wastewater Effluent from Gas Turbine Power Plants using the Statistical Method of Taguchi
استخدام اغشية الترشيح الفائق و التناضح العكسي في معالجة المياه الملوثة الناتجة من محطات كهرباء العنفات الغازية باستخدام طريقة تاكوشي الاحصائية

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A study on the treatment and reuse of oily wastewater generated from the process of fuel oil treatment of gas turbine power plant was performed. The feasibility of using hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane type polyamide thin-film composite in a pilot plant was investigated. Three different variables: pressure (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 bars), oil content (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were employed in the UF process while TDS was kept constant at 150 ppm. Four different variables: pressure (5, 6, 7 and 8 bar), oil content (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 ppm), total dissolved solids (TDS) (100, 200,300 and 400 ppm), and temperature (15, 20, 30 and 40 ᵒC) were manipulated with the help of statistical method of Taguchi in the RO process. Analysis of variable (ANOVA) and optimum condition was investigated. The study shows that pressure has the greatest impact on the flux of UF process, while it was temperature for RO process. It was noticed that more than 99% oil removal can be achieved and flux of 580 L/m2.hr by UF process and that the fouling mechanism of UF process follows the cake/gel layer filtration model. It was concluded that 100% removal of oil content can be achieved along with 99% for the TDS rejection and flux of 76 L/m2.hr by RO process. The result shows fouling in RO process follows the standard pore blocking model. Process optimization was conducted with confirmation test. It was concluded that the observed values are within ±5% of that the predicted which reflects a strong representative model. The treated wastewater has the characteristics of that used as fresh water and it can be reused to the process to reduce the operation cost.

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