Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:23 issue:1

Article
Removal of Copper from Simulated Wastewater by Applying Electromagnetic Adsorption for Locally Prepared Activated Carbon of Banana Peels
إزالة النحاس من المياه بأستخدام تقنية الأمتزاز الكهرومغناطيسي باستخدام مادة ممتزة منتجة محليا من قشور الموز

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Abstract

The adsorption of copper ions onto produced activated carbon from banana peels (with particle size 250 µm) in a single component system with applying magnetic field has been studied using fixed bed adsorber. The fixed bed breakthrough curves for the copper ions were investigated. The adsorption capacity for Cu (II) was investigated. It was found that 1) the exposure distance (E.D) and strength of magnetic field (B), affected the degree of adsorption; and 2) experiments showed that removal of Cu ions and accumulative adsorption capacity of adsorbent increase as the exposure distance and strength of magnetic field increase.


Article
Effect of Air Bubbles on Heat Transfer Coefficient in Turbulent Convection Flow
تاثير فقاعات الهواء على معامل انتقال الحرارة في جريان الحمل المضطرب

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Abstract

Experimental and numerical studies have been conducted for the effect of injected air bubbles on the heat transfer coefficient through the water flow in a vertical pipe under the influence of uniform heat flux. The investigated parameters were water flow rate of (10, 14 and 18) lit/min, air flow rate of (1.5, 3 and 4) lit/min for subjected heat fluxes of (27264, 36316 and 45398) W/m2. The energy, momentum and continuity equations were solved numerically to describe the motion of flow. Turbulence models k-ε was implemented. The mathematical model is using a CFD code Fluent (Ansys15). The water was used as continuous phase while the air was represented as dispersed phase. The experimental work includes design, build and instrument a test rig for that purpose. A circular vertical copper pipe test section of (length=0.7m, diameter= 0.05m, thickness= 1.5mm) is designed and constructed, heated by an electrical heater fixed on its outer surface. Water temperature at inlet is kept constant at (32°C). Water inlet and outlet temperatures, as well as radial temperature distribution within the pipe at seven sections along it between pipe surface and its center are measured. The results revealed that the secondary flow created by air bubbles have significant effects on heat transfer enhancement and temperature profile. It is observed, that averaged Nusselt number enhancement for low heat flux of 27264 W/m2 and 4 lit/min air bubbles was 33.3 % and 23% in numerical and experimental, respectively.


Article
Detection and Diagnosis of Induction Motor Faults by Intelligent Techniques
كشف وتشخيص اعطال المحركات الحثية بواسطة التقنيات الذكية

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Abstract

This paper presents a complete design and implementation of a monitoring system for the operation of the three-phase induction motors. This system is built using a personal computer and two types of sensors (current, vibration) to detect some of the mechanical faults that may occur in the motor. The study and examination of several types of faults including (ball bearing and shaft misalignment faults) have been done through the extraction of fault data by using fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique. Results showed that the motor current signature analysis (MCSA) technique, and measurement of vibration technique have high possibility in the detection and diagnosis of most mechanical faults with high accuracy. Subsequently, diagnosis system is developed to determine the status of the motor without the need for an expert. This system is based on artificial neural network (ANN) and it is characterized by speed and accuracy and the ability to detect more than one fault at the same time.


Article
Performance Enhancement of an Air Cooled Air Conditioner with Evaporative Water Mist Pre-cooling
تحسين الاداء الحراري لمكيف هواء مكثفه مبرد بالهواء مع تبريد مسبق بمرذاذ مائي تبخيري

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Abstract

The present paper deals with experimental investigation of the performance of air cooled split air conditioner, with evaporative water mist pre cooling to increase the cooling capacity and reduce the consumption power under hot and dry climate. This investigation considers how the performance can be enhanced by using water mist to pre-cool ambient air entering the condensers by adiabatic cooling process which depends on the ambient air wet bulb temperature; as well the condensing temperature and condensing pressure will be decreased accordingly. So the cooling capacity would be increased and consumption power would be decreased, consequently the energy ratio, EER would be improved. The performance of air cooled air conditioner with water mist pre cooling; ECAC was compared to the performance of air cooled air conditioner, ACAC which tested under the same ambient condition that is ranged from 25oC to 52oC. Test results show that ECAC operating at EER of 10.5 BTV/W. The ECAC had an EER of 47 % higher than that of ACAC under the same and most serve hot and dry condition of 52oC and 10% relative humidity.


Article
Remediation of Contaminated Soil with Petroleum Industrial Wastewater
معالجة التربة الملوثة بالمخلفات النفطية

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Abstract

The contamination of soil with the wastes of oil industry products that are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons increased recently due to the large development of oil industries in Iraq. This study deals with the remediation of low permeability contaminated clayey soil by using the enhanced electrokinetic technique (EK). The contaminated soil samples obtained from Thi-Qar oil refinery plant in Al-Nassyriah city, where the byproducts of refinery plant disposed into that site. The byproduct contaminant treated as total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to avoid dealing and complexity of treating the individual minerals and compounds consisting the contaminant. The initial concentrations of TPH were (702.7, 1168, 1235) ppm in the contaminated soil samples NA10, NA11, and NA12 respectively. The remediation technique includes a bench-scale experimental study by applying the enhanced electrokinetic test on the soil sample NA12 that contains the higher concentration of TPH in comparison with other soil samples. A constant DC voltage gradient of 1.0 VDC/cm was applied for a period of 10 days. This technology is enhanced by using flushing solution of ethanol and deionized water, which is mixed in ratios of 30% and 70% respectively. The results of this study showed the removal of TPH at the anode was about 15% and the concentration of TPH decreased at anode, which reflect the migration of TPH towards the cathode.


Article
EFFECT OF PVD AND VACUUM PRESSURE ON SATURATED-UNSATURATED SOFT SOILS
تأثير أعمدة التصريف الطولية وضغط التفريغ على الترب الرخوة المشبعة وغير المشبعة

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Abstract

Soft clays are generally sediments deposited by rivers, seas, or lakes. These soils are fine-grained plastic soils with appreciable clay content and are characterized by high compressibility and low shear strength. To deal with soft soil problems there is more than one method that can be used such as soil replacement, preloading, stone column, sand drains, lime stabilization and Prefabricated Vertical Drains, PVDs. A numerical modeling of PVD with vacuum pressure was analyzed to investigate the effect of this technique on the consolidation behavior of fully and different depths of partially saturated soft soils. Laboratory experiments were also conducted by using a specially-designed large consolidmeter cell. Five tests were conducted with a vacuum pressure of about 40 kPa applied for a period of 30 days where the degree of consolidation reached 75% based on pore-water pressure distribution. The results showed that using vacuum pressure with vertical drains reduces the consolidation time by about 68%. Existence of an unsaturated soil layer decreases settlement of soil by about 22%, 32%, 425, 54% as the unsaturated depth increases by 1/8, 1/4, 3/8, and 1/2L respectively and causes a rapid increase in soil pore-water pressure.


Article
Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller for Servo Actuator System with Friction
تصميم مسيطر منزلق متكيف لمنظومة المحرك المؤازر بوجود الاحتكاك

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Abstract

This paper addresses the use of adaptive sliding mode control for the servo actuator system with friction. The adaptive sliding mode control has several advantages over traditional sliding mode control method. Firstly, the magnitude of control effort is reduced to the minimal admissible level defined by the conditions for the sliding mode to exist. Secondly, the upper bounds of uncertainties are not required to be known in advance. Therefore, adaptive sliding mode control method can be effectively implemented. The numerical simulation via MATLAB 2014a for servo actuator system with friction is investigated to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive sliding mode control scheme. The results clarify, after comparing it with the results obtained by using classical sliding mode control, that the control efforts are reduced and the chattering amplitude is attenuated with preserving main features of the classical sliding mode control.


Article
Evaluation of Textile Filter in Field Drains
تقييم اداء الفلتر النسيجي في المبازل الحقلية

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Abstract

The role of drain in agricultural lands is to remove excess surface and subsurface water to create a good environment for root growth and to increase crops yield. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of closed drains when using textile filter instead of crushed gravel filter. The research has been executed in the laboratory using a sand tank model and by using two types of the soil. One of soils was light soil (sandy soil) and the other heavy soil (loamy soil). The tests were classified into four cases; each case was supplied discharge during 10 days. The results showed that the amount of out flow when using graded crushed gravel filter is greater than the amount of out flow in case of using textile filter for the same soil; and the amount of sediment in applying graded crushed gravel filter for the two types of soils was greater than using textile filter. The entrance resistance for textile filter was greater than graded crushed gravel filter and the entrance resistance increase for the two types of filters with time. From the results it can be concluded that the graded crushed gravel is more efficient than the textile filter in sandy soil, while when using the two types of filters with loamy soil the results showed that the two types of filter exhibited low work efficiency.


Article
Two – Dimensional Mathematical Model to Study Erosion Problem of Tigris River Banks at Nu’maniyah
النموذج الهيدروليكي لدراسة مشكلة النحر والمعالجات اللازمة في ضفاف نهر دجلة عند النعمانية

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Abstract

The high and low water levels in Tigris River threaten the banks of the river. The study area is located on the main stream of Tigris River at Nu’maniyah City and the length of the considered reach is 5.4 km, especially the region from 400 m upstream Nu’maniyah Bridge and downstream of the bridge up to 1250 m which increased the risk of the problem that it heading towards the street and causing danger to nearby areas. The aim of this research is to identify the reason of slope collapse and find proper treatments for erosion problem in the river banks with the least cost. The modeling approach consisted of several steps, the first of which is by using “mini” JET (Jet Erosion Test) device provides a simple method of measuring scour depth with the time for the riverbank and finding values of critical shear stress and erodibility factor for ten soil samples taken from right bank and bottom of Tigris River; the second of which involved setting up a static BSTEM software for two models (with and without treatment), then calculating the erosion amounts and factor of safety for the ten soil samples; the third approach involved implementing a two dimensional RMA2 to simulate four scenarios to find the velocity, water depth, and water surface elevation distributions for two models (with and without treatment). Therefore, observed erosion in other discharges in natural case near the right bank [especially at cross section that are located in Tigris River at Nu’maniyah City from 500 m upstream Nu’maniyah Bridge and cross section that are located from 1800 m downstream Nu’maniyah Bridge] is high because of high erodibility coefficient in those cross sections that causes high erosion. Also, failure occurs in natural case of Tigris River at Nu’maniyah City because of erosion near the right bank and does not occur because of slope stability failure for right bank where the range of the velocities near the right bank for the study area for most discharges is between 0.67 and 0.91 m/s. In addition to experimental work using "mini" JET device shows high erodibility coefficient in those cross sections and (2+900) which confirms that this device is very good indicator for the possibility of bank scour. The velocities upstream of the island and near the right bank in the study area are between 0.64 and 1.47 m/s, while downstream of the island is between 0.64 and 1.04 m/s. In addition to soil of Tigris River right bank at Nu’maniyah is silty soil, the scour velocity is higher than 0.5 m/s, therefore the right bank is safe against scour only when the discharges of Tigris River are less than 500 m3/s. Thus, vegetation is unsafe treatment on right bank of Tigris River at Nu’maniyah City. The velocity causes removal of plants since treatment for river bank is 0.61 m/s where velocities near bank at most discharges are higher than this limit. Thus, treatment by riprap is the proper choice on the right bank of Tigris River at Nu’maniyah City because its cost with maintenance is 2 billion IQD less than gabion treatment in addition to velocity reduction ratio along the right bank by riprap ranges from 15% to 85%, while velocity reduction ratio along the right bank by gabion ranges from 8% to 25%, respectively.


Article
Effects of Bedding Types on the Behavior of Large Diameter GRP Flexible Sewer Pipes
تاثيرات أنواع طبقة الفرش على تصرف أنابيب المجاري المرنة ذات الأقطار الكبيرة من نوع GRP

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Abstract

Flexible pipes, such as GRP pipes, serve as effective underground infrastructure especially as sewer pipeline. This study is an attempt for understanding the effects of bedding types on the behavior of large diameter GRP flexible sewer pipes using three dimensional finite element approaches. Theoretical and numerical analyses were performed using both BS EN 1295-1 approach and finite element method (ABAQUS software). The effects of different parameters are studied such as, depth of backfill, bedding compaction, and backfill compaction. Due to compaction, an increase in the bedding compaction modulus (E’1) results in a reduction of both stresses and displacements of the pipe, especially, for well compacted backfill. An increase of (E’1) from 14MPa to 30MPa results in a reduction in stresses 40% and about 25% in displacements. Maximum reductions in stresses were found to be about 25% only while the reduction in displacement was found to be less than 10%. As backfill material compaction modulus (E’2) is increased from 14MPa to 40MPa, a maximum reduction in stresses within the pipe was found to be not less than 60% while the displacement reduces up to 65%.


Article
Evaluating Water Damage Resistance of Recycled Asphalt Concrete Mixtures
تقييم مقاومة التأثير الضار للماء لخلطات الخرسانة الاسفلتية المعاد تدويرها

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Abstract

Recycling process presents a sustainable pavement by using the old materials that could be milled, mixed with virgin materials and recycling agents to produce recycled mixtures. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of water on recycled asphalt concrete mixtures, and the effect of the inclusion of old materials into recycled mixtures on the resistance of water damage. A total of 54 Marshall Specimens and 54 compressive strength specimens of (virgin, recycled, and aged asphalt concrete mixtures) had been prepared, and subjected to Tensile Strength Ratio test, and Index of Retained Strength test. Four types of recycling agents (used oil, oil + crumb rubber, soft grade asphalt cement, and asphalt cement + Sulphur powder), were adopted to prepare recycled mixtures, and the recycling agent of (soft grade asphalt) was used to prepare mixtures with further old materials contents. It was found that the Tensile Strength Ratio exceeds 75% for all recycled mixtures, and the recycled mixture with (oil + rubber) and 50% old materials content, had the highest Tensile Strength Ratio value comparing to other recycled mixtures. Results of Index of Retained Strength showed that mixtures with (Soft Ac) and (Ac + Sulphur) and 50% old materials, exceeded the Index of Retained Strength value for virgin mixture. Index of Retained Strength values decreased as the old materials content increased, Index of Retained Strength was (80.5%, 74.5%, 71.6%, and 67.62%) for recycled mixtures with (50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%) old materials content respectively.

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