Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
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Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:23 issue:3

Article
Flexural Behavior of Partially Pretensioned Continuous Concrete Beams
تصرف الأنثناء للعتبات الخرسانية المستمرة والمسبقة الشد

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Abstract

This paper describes flexural behavior of two spans continuous rectangular concrete beams reinforced with mild steel and partially prestressing strands, to evaluate using different prestressing level and prestressing area in continuous prestressed beams at serviceability and ultimate stages. Six continuous concrete beams with 4550 mm length reinforced with mild steel reinforcement and partially prestressed with two prestressing levels of (0.7fpy or 0.55fpy) of and different amount of 12.7 mm diameter seven wire steel strand were used. Test results showed that the partially prestressed reinforced beams with higher prestressing level exhibited the narrowest crack width, smallest deflection and strain in both steel and concrete at ultimate service load, the deflection decreased by (3.60% & 32.49%) and the crack width decreased by (20.0%) and (75.0%) when increasing the prestressing level from (0.55fpy) to (0.7fpy) for beams reinforced with one and two strands respectively. Deflection of beams with two strands decreased by (44.81% & 22.2%) compared with beams of one strand at prestressing level of (0.7 fpy) and (0.55 fpy), respectively. At ultimate load, using ACI-Code recommended moment redistribution led to more agreement between theoretical and experimental loads for both ordinary reinforced and partially prestressed beams.


Article
The Impact of Urban Solid Waste Management on Urban Environment
أثر معالجة النفايات الحضرية الصلبة على البيئة الحضرية

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Abstract

The growing population and the rising standard of living in cities as well as the increased commercial, industrial and agricultural activities around the world led to massive production of waste containing different materials and one of them is the municipal solid waste (MSW), so there is a major problem facing the cities around the world about the waste, how to collect, transfer it and how to discard it. Because the accumulation of wastes, whether in the city alleys or in its squares and especially in its residential areas affect the health of their populations besides this situation will be a major indication of the deteriorating quality of life in the city, as hygiene considered a fundamental criterion for the city beauty as well as an indication of the protection provided by the city to their environment and the level of protection provided to the health of city residence. The accumulated waste which is left in the city without treatment significantly affects the psychological behavior of the residence of these areas towards their community and environment and therefore their behavior towards their regions and their cities. From here emerged the general research problem concerning the modern civilization and its lifestyle that produced great amounts of (municipal solid waste), which became a big problem facing the modern cities concerning their collection, transportation and finally their disposal, how can these great amounts of waste be used whether by recycling, energy recovery or transferring to plant fertilizers ... etc. To serve the sustainable growth of these modern cities, this lead to the specific research problem concerning the lack of clarity concerning the impact of waste collection, transporting and treating and city urban environment and its townscape. Research Hypothesis: The process of collecting, transporting and treating city solid waste or using it has a great impact on city urban environment and its townscape.


Article
Contributory Factors Related to Permanent Deformation of Hot Asphalt Mixtures
العوامل المساهمة والمتعلقة بالتشوه الدائمي للخلطات الاسفلتية الحــارة

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Abstract

Permanent deformation (Rutting) of asphalt pavements which appears in many roads in Iraq, have caused a major impact on pavement performance by reducing the useful service life of pavement and creating services hazards for highway users. The main objective of this research is investigating the effect of some contributory factors related to permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixture. To meet the objectives of this research, available local materials are used including asphalt binder, aggregates, mineral filler and modified asphalt binder. The Superpave mix design system was adopted with varying volumetric compositions. The Superpave Gyratory Compactor was used to compact 24 asphalt concrete cylindrical specimens. To collect the required data and investigate the development of permanent deformation in asphalt concrete under repeated loadings, Wheel-Tracking apparatus has been used in a factorial testing program during which 44 slab samples; with dimensions of 400×300×50 mm; were tested to simulate actual pavement. Based on wheel-tracking test results, it has been concluded that increasing the compaction temperature from 110 to 150ºC caused a decreasing in permanent deformation by 20.5 and 15.6 percent for coarse and fine gradation control asphalt mixtures respectively. While the permanent deformation decreased about 21.3 percent when the compaction temperature is increased from 110 to 150ºC for coarse gradation asphalt mixtures modified with styrene butadiene styrene SBS with 3 percent by asphalt binder weight.


Article
Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics Model of PBT/ MWCNTs Nanocomposites
نمذجة حركية تبلور البولي بيوتلين تيرفيثالات المدعم بأنابيب النانو كاربون المتعدد الجدران

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Abstract

The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and crystalline properties of nanocomposites poly butyleneterephthalate, [PBT] /multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). PBT/(MWCNTs) nanocomposite was prepared by ultrasonicated of MWCNTs (0.5, 1, 2, 4 wt %) in dichloromethane (DCM) and after that the powdered PBT polymer was added to the MWCNTs solution. The non-isothermal crystallization results show that increasing the MWCNTs contents, decreased the melting temperature (Tm) of PBT/(MWCNTs) nanocomposite as compared with pure PBT, while resulting in improving the degree of crystallinity. These results indicated that a little amount of MWCNTs can be evident strong nucleating agent in PBT nanocomposites. Avrami kinetics model results given a good agreement with the frequent investigation. The Kissinger method shows the MWCNTs had a well nucleation effect on the crystallization of PBT, and the enhancement activation energy (Ea) with increased the MWCNTs in PBT/ (MWCNTs) nanocomposite.


Article
Removal of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan Impregnated Granular Activated Carbon
ازالة ايون الرصاص من المحلول المائي باستخدام الجيتاسون المحمل على الكاربون المنشط الحبيبي

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Abstract

The use of biopolymer material Chitosan impregnated granular activated carbon CHGAC as adsorbent in the removal of lead ions pb2+ from aqueous solution was studied using batch adsorption mode. The prepared CHGAC was characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) and atomic-absorption spectrophotometer. The adsorption of lead ions onto Chitosan- impregnated granular activated carbon was examined as a function of adsorbent weight, pH and contact time in Batch system. Langmuir and Freundlich models were employed to analyze the resulting experimental data demonstrated that better fitted by Langmuir isotherm model than Freundlich model, with good correlation coefficient. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the pseudo second order model in conformity to the experimental values. This means that the adsorption performance of lead ions onto CHGAC follows a pseudo second order model, which illustrates that the adsorption of Pb2+ onto CHGAC was controlled by chemisorption. The granular activated carbon GAC impregnated by Chitosan was effectively applied as adsorbent for the elimination of lead ions from aqueous solution.


Article
Design and Implementation of Enhanced Smart Energy Metering System
تصميم وتنفيذ منظومة مقاييس طاقة ذكية مطورة

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Abstract

In this work, the design and implementation of a smart energy metering system has been developed. This system consists of two parts: billing center and a set of distributed smart energy meters. The function of smart energy meter is measuring and calculating the cost of consumed energy according to a multi-tariff scheme. This can be effectively solving the problem of stressing the electrical grid and rising consumer awareness. Moreover, smart energy meter decreases technical losses by improving power factor. The function of the billing center is to issue a consumer bill and contributes in locating the irregularities on the electrical grid (non-technical losses). Moreover, it sends the switch off command in case of the consumer bill is not paid. For implementation of smart energy meter, the microcontroller (PIC 18F45K22) is used. For communication between billing center and smart energy meters, ZigBee technology is adopted. The necessary program for smart energy meter is written in MicroC PRO, while the program for billing center is written in visual C#.


Article
Composite Techniques Based Color Image Compression
التقنيات المركبة المستندة على ضغط الصورة الملونة

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Abstract

Compression for color image is now necessary for transmission and storage in the data bases since the color gives a pleasing nature and natural for any object, so three composite techniques based color image compression is implemented to achieve image with high compression, no loss in original image, better performance and good image quality. These techniques are composite stationary wavelet technique (S), composite wavelet technique (W) and composite multi-wavelet technique (M). For the high energy sub-band of the 3rd level of each composite transform in each composite technique, the compression parameters are calculated. The best composite transform among the 27 types is the three levels of multi-wavelet transform (MMM) in M technique which has the highest values of energy (En) and compression ratio (CR) and least values of bit per pixel (bpp), time (T) and rate distortion )R(D)). Also the values of the compression parameters of the color image are nearly the same as the average values of the compression parameters of the three bands of the same image.


Article
Effects of Magnetized Water on the Accumulated Depth of Infiltration
تأثير الماء الممغنط على عمق الارتشاح المتراكم للترب

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Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of magnetized water on accumulated infiltration depth. A test rig was designed and constructed for this purpose was installed at the water tests laboratory of the Department of Water Resources Engineering at the University of Baghdad. The investigation was carried out by using two types of soil, different flow velocities throughout magnetizing device and different configuration of magnets over and under the water passage of the magnetizing device. The soils that were used in the experiments are clayey and sandy soils. Six different flow velocities throughout magnetizing device ranged between 0.29 to 1.19 cm/s and ten configurations of arranging the magnets over and under the water passage of the magnetizing device were used. The magnates are sintered neodymium-iron-boron type. Tests results obtained with magnetized water were compared with those of untreated water. Results showed that magnetizing water increases the accumulated infiltration depth for the two types of soil. The highest increase in the accumulated infiltration depth is achieved under low flow velocity throughout the magnetizing device and with ten magnets. This highest increase for the clayey and sandy soils was 98.2% and 34.2%, respectively.


Article
Evaluation the Mechanical Properties of Shot Peened TIG Welded Aluminum Sheets
تقييم الخواص الميكانيكية لصفائح الالمنيوم الملحومة بطريقة قطب التنكستن المحمي بالغاز الخامل والمعاملة بطريقة القذف بالكرات

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Abstract

A tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is one of the most popular kinds of welding used to joins metals mainly for aluminum alloys. However, many challenges may be met with this kind of joining process; these challenges arise from decay of mechanical properties of welded materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to enhancing the mechanical properties of TIG weld joint of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy by hardening the surfaces using shoot peening technique. To optimize the shoot peening process three times of exposure (5, 10, and 15) min. was used. All peened and unpeened, and welded and unwelded samples were characterized by metallographic test to indicate the phase transformation and modification in microstructure occurring during welding process. Tensile test and Vickers micro-hardness measurements were performed for all samples to investigate the effect of shoot peening on mechanical properties of welded aluminum. The results indicated a significant improvement in properties for peened welded and unwelded samples compared with those unpeened one. Also, the results showed that the tensile and micro-hardness properties were increased with increasing the time of exposure to 15 min. due to generation of compressive residual stresses at surface.


Article
Estimation of Lifting Capacity for Selected Wells in Rumaila Field
تخمين قابلية الرفع لابار مختارة في حقل الرميلة

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Abstract

This paper deals with studying the effect of hole inclination angle on computing slip velocity and consequently its effect on lifting capacity. The study concentrates on selected vertical wells in Rumaila field, Southern Iraq. Different methods were used to calculate lifting capacity. Lifting capacity is the most important factor for successful drilling and which reflex on preventing hole problems and reduces drilling costs. Many factors affect computing lifting capacity, so hence the effect of hole inclination angle on lifting capacity will be shown in this study. A statistical approach was used to study the lifting capacity values which deal with the effect of hole inclination angle and those values that do not put the effect of hole inclination angle under consideration. Results illustrated that low hole inclination angles had a slight effect on lifting capacity values , but this study could be used on high inclination angles like directional wells or horizontal wells , hence high hole inclinations angle will yields high effect on lifting capacity values.

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