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مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة

ISSN: 83732222/25189255
الجامعة: جامعة ديالى
الكلية: العلوم
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

مجلة جامعة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة مجلة علمية فصلية تصدر عن كلية العلوم في جامعة ديالى وباللغتين العربية وألأنكليزية وتهدف للمساهمة في تطوير المعرفة وذلك بنشر البحوث الأصيلة والمراجعات في مختلف العلوم الصرفة والتطبيقية، بحيث تكون سجلاّ للدراسات في هذين المجالين.

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معلومات الاتصال

admin@djps.uodiyala.edu.iq
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جدول المحتويات السنة: 2017 المجلد: 13 العدد: 2 - part 1

Article
Nanocrystalline Lead Sulphide Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition Technique
أغشية كبريتيد الرصاص النانوية التركيب المحضرة بتقنية الحوض الكيميائي

المؤلفون: Jamal Fadhil Mohammad جمال فاضل محمد
الصفحات: 1-13
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الخلاصة

In the present paper, nanocrystalline lead sulphide (PbS) thin films were prepared by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique onto glass substrates using the mixed aqueous solutions of lead acetate, thiourea and ammonia. The structure of the films was studied by X-ray diffraction. XRD studies show that the preferential orientation is (200). The optical properties were carried out from spectroscopy measurements in the wavelength range 300-1100 nm. The optical band gap of the prepared films was found to be higher as compared with respect to the bulk value (0.4 eV) due to quantum size effect with shift toward shorter wavelengths.


Article
Study the total Stopping Power of electrons in Beryllium
دراسة قدرة الإيقاف الكلية الكترونات لعنصر البريليوم

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الخلاصة

The aim of the present research is calculation the values of total Stot stopping power which consisted from two parts :radiative SRad , collisional SColl of electrons by employing Bethe-Bloch relativistic formula. All the related equations programmed via MathCad2012 by using the mean ionization potential I value for Beryllium in the energy range of (0.1-10)MeV, the results showing a that the collisional stopping power is the dominate along the energy interval of incident electrons than the radiative stopping power and the by comparing the Stot values of Estar code with present results shows a in excellent agreement in especially in the energies (0.1-3)MeV ,after that, the Bethe-Bloch relativistic formula show some discrepancies, which requires addition another corrections factors to keeps the errors in results small.


Article
Clinical, Radio-Ultrasonographicl and Serological Features of Hydatid and Simple Cysts in Human
المظاهر السريرية و الاشعائية والمصلية للأكياس المائية و البسيطة في الانسان

المؤلفون: Hiro M. Obaid هيرو محمد عبيد
الصفحات: 26-42
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الخلاصة

Intruoduction: Hydatid cyst is remain a health problem of significant concern worldwide. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is considered to be highly endemic in some countries. Methods: In this study serological, radiographic and clinical features of simple and hydatid cyst were studied. For this purpose, 114 patients (57 male, 57 femle) whom had clinical or/and radio, ultrasonographic signs for hydatid and simple cysts, were referred to cystic infection in Azadi Teaching Hospital in Kirkuk province, Iraq. The serum samples were examined serologically by ELISA. Results: Depending on the results of clinical or/and ultrasonographic, a rate of 15.8 % were infected with CE and a rate of 84.2 % were have simple cysts (SC). While the results of serological examination by ELISA revealed 14.1% for CE and 85.9% for SC. The most age group which was significantly infected by CE in males was 56-64 year with a rate of 40 %, and the most age group which was significantly infected in females was 65-73 year with rate of 100 %. The CE was significantly more frequent in the liver of infected patients in both males and females, with rates of 71.4, 100 % for each gender respectively. The size of most of hydatid cysts were larger than 9 centimeter. People in rural area were most infected than in urban area. The frequency of CE were significantly highest among housewife females (43.8 %), and unemployed men (31.3 %). Conclusion: CE can be diagnosed and differentiated from SC serologically, even when the cysts are very small and at beginning stage. The radio-ultrasonographic is good in cysts diagnosing but cannot differentiate between types of small sized one.


Article
A Proposed Method for Documents Indexing
طريقة مقترحة لفهرسة الوثائق

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الخلاصة

In this paper, a new method is proposed for documents indexing based on constructing two tables, namely, words-information table and pages-information table. These two tables used to represent the first step in information retrieval (which prepare the documents set (preprocessing)). In Information retrieval systems, tokenization is an integrals part whose prime objective is to identifying the tokens and their count. In this paper, can be proposed an effective tokenization approach, which is based on proposed new method called documents indexing and results shows that efficiency of proposed algorithm. Tokenization on documents helps to satisfy user’s information need more precisely and reduced search sharply. Preprocessing of input document is an integral part of Tokenization, which involves preprocessing of documents and generates its respective tokens, which is the basis of these tokens. Probabilistic IR generate its scoring and gives reduced search space. Comparative analysis based on the two parameters; reduce the time of search space, Pre-processing time, and reduce the size of memory.


Article
Determination of IL-35, PTH, Ferritin and Other biochemical. Parameters in sera of Iraqi Men with chronic kidney failure
تقدير مستويات الانترلوكين-35 وهرمون الباراثايرويد والفيرتين ومتغيرات كيموحيوية اخرى في مصل دم رجال عراقيين مصابين بالفشل الكلوي المزمن

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الخلاصة

Chronic kidney Failure, a progressive disease, includes both medical and biochemical features that damage kidneys and decrease their abilities to work effectively, this disease is characterized by a chronic disorders to both the innate and adaptive immune systems, generate a complex and not fully understood immune dysfunction. In the present study, (30) men suffering from chronic kidney failure with age in range (40-55) year and (30) healthy men within the same range of age were enrolled in this study. The aim of this study is to highlight the role of immunological aspect (IL-35), hormonal aspects (PTH), some functional proteins and immunological electrolytes in sera of chronic kidney failure (CKF) patients. Biochemical parameters were determined in the sera of both patients and (healthy) control group. Patients enrolled in this study were newly diagnosed, they have not taken any treatment related to any chronic disease. Blood samples were collected and biochemical parameters were measured in Al- Karama teaching hospital in Baghdad (except IL-35 which was determined in the private Al-Ghazalia Laboratory) from April to November 2015. Results have reported that IL-35 level was highly significant increase in sera of chronic kidney failure patients (35.035± 0.025) pg/mL compared with healthy group (23.331±0.031) pg/mL. As well, PTH level was highly significant increased in patients group (235.032±3.841) pg/ml compared with healthy control group (49.96±0.308) pg/mL. Hemoglobin level was highly significant decreased ( 9.696±0.056) g/L in patients with control group (15.332±0.067) g/dL. Also, ferritin level was highly significant decreased in chronic kidney failure patients (164.0.68±7.818) ng/mL compared with control group (313.56±1.874) ng/mL. Moreover, albumin level was highly significant decreased (3.00±0.020) g/dL in patients compared with control group (4.928±0.039)g/dL. Bicarbonate level was highly significant decreased (17.412±0.117) mmol/L in patients compared with control group (25.044±0.072) mmol/L, sodium level was non significantly increased in patients (138.65±0.288) meq/L compared with control group (135.84±0.144) meq/L, potassium level was highly significant increased in patients group (5.420±0.0186) meq/L compared with healthy control group (4.700±0.113)meq/L, calcium level was highly significant decreased in patients (7.464±0.054) mmol/L compared with control group (9.628±0.614) mmol/L, phosphate level was significantly increased in patients (4.891±0.016) mg/dL compared with control group (4.552±0.014) mg/dL. The present study concludes that IL-35 is a strong biochemical marker for Iraqi men with CKF. Moreover, this study indicated the positive relationship between (PTH, Na+, K+, PO42-) and chronic kidney failure, and the negative relationship between (Ferritin, albumin, hemoglobin, HCO3-) and chronic kidney failure in Iraq.


Article
Charge density Distributions and Elastic Electron Scattering from 58Ni, 64Zn, 70Ge and 76Se nuclei using the occupation numbers of the states
توزيعات كثافة الشحنة والاستطارة الالكترونية المرنة من النوى 58Ni, 64Zn, 70Ge و 76Se باستخدام حالات اعداد الملئ

المؤلفون: Ahmed N. Abdullah أحمد نجم عبدالله
الصفحات: 75-85
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الخلاصة

The charge density distribution (CDD) and elastic electron scattering form factors, F(q), for some 1f-2p shell nuclei, such as 58Ni, 64Zn, 70Ge and 76Se nuclei have been evaluated using the wave functions of the harmonic oscillator and occupation numbers of states. It found that considering the effect of higher shells through introducing additional parameters namely δ_1 and δ_2 lead to astonishing accordance between the calculated and the observed results of the CDD and elastic form factors F(q).


Article
Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation and its Health Hazards on human body
تأثير الأشعاعات غير المؤينة والمخاطر الصحية على جسم الانسان

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الخلاصة

The electromagnetic pollution is produced from the electromagnetic radiation source. In recent years, there is electromagnetic pollution in our earth. Different types of source are caused these pollution such as mobile phones, tower lines, and Wi-Fi. The increase of using these devices will lead to increase various problem of public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonionizing radiation and its health hazards on human body. Various data (the power density) were collected from two types of mobile phones, tower cells, photocopy machine, power lines, D-Link wireless and fast link. Data from a school were also collected. Charts and tables of each data were given. It has been found that the increased use in the electromagnetic devices such as mobile phones galaxy and I phone, cell towers, will have extremely negative effect on human health. It has also been found that using mobile phones with the full charge has less intensity than with low charge. It can be concluded from mobile and cell tower data that the exposure limit of RF was lower than the standard RF of Iraq. Further research in a wider level will be required to investigate all type of mobile phones that are used in our city and their effects on human health.


Article
Multiple Cavity Square Narrow and Broad Band Optical Filters for Infrared Region Application
مرشحات بصرية ذات حزم ضيقة وعريضة مربعة متعددة التجاويف لتطبيقات المنطقة تحت الحمراء

المؤلفون: Shireen Mohammed Abed شيرين محمد عبد
الصفحات: 102-115
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الخلاصة

In this work, theoretically optimization design of wide and narrow band pass filters have been suggested within middle- infrared region (MIR) that ranged from 9000 nm to 12000 nm. For the numerical calculation, use Germanium (Ge) as the substrate, Zinc sulfide (ZnS) and Cryolite (Na3A1F6) as high and low refractive index respectively. The results shows that, for normal incidence yields the transmittance is high ( T ˃ 99.5 ) at the center of Design wavelength (λo). Also, when the angle of incidence increase, The transmittance of electric polarization decreases and that of magnetic polarization increases , As in the case for the proposed design: Air/(LH)4LHHL(HL)4H(LH)4LHHL(HL)4(HL)4(HL)4HH(LH)4 (LH)4/Ge (TE=96.79) and (TM=99.57) at the angle 30 .


Article
Linear Filtering of the Sum of Two Known Stochastic Processes
الفلترة الخطية لمجموع عمليتين عشوائيتين معروفتين

المؤلفون: Sayran Hmza Raheem سيران حمزة رحيم
الصفحات: 116-131
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الخلاصة

The linear filtering got the great attention of statisticians and applied mathematician; therefore the present study aims at finding the linear filtering of stationary stochastic process and that is when we know the values of the sum of two stochastic processes at all moments of the time and when t≥0, and this requires us to know the spectral density function f_XX (λ) for the stochastic processes. In this paper, we opted to take two cases after giving the necessary definitions for all important terms and finding the spectral density function for each stochastic processes (Poisson process and Wide Sense Markov process) ; in the first case we supposed that both of the stochastic processes are stationary Poisson processes and after finding the linear filtering we compute the mean square filtering error ;and in second case we suppose one of the stochastic process is Poisson process and the other is wide sense Markov process also in this case we find the mean square filtering error .


Article
Proton Momentum Distributions and Elastic Electron Scattering from 70Zn, 72Ge and 74Se nuclei
توزيعات زخم البروتون والاستطارة الالكترونية المرنة من النوى 70Zn، 72Ge و 74Se

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الخلاصة

In the framework of correlation method so-called coherent density fluctuation model (CDFM) the proton momentum distributions (PMD) of the ground state for some even mass nuclei of fp-shell like 70Zn,72Ge and 74Se nuclei are examined. Proton momentum distributions are expressed in terms of the fluctuation function(|f(x)|^2 ) and determined from theory and experiment. The main characteristic feature of the PMD obtained by CDFM is the existence of high-momentum components, for momenta k ≥ 2 fm−1. For completeness, also elastic electron scattering form factors F(q) are evaluated within the same framework.


Article
Theoretical Analysis of Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer
التحليل النظري لتقنية العلاج البروتوني لسرطان البروستات

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الخلاصة

The dependence of high proton energies has been investigated for proton therapy, which are governed by essential physical factors such as ion ranges and stopping powers. In addition, the volume of prostate is another variable factor varies according to human age and types of tumor. The aim of this theoretical study is about bombardment the prostate tumor by normal incidence protons from Medical Cyclotron at room temperature and energy ranges 60-250 MeV. It was studied by means of calculating Stopping Powers, 3D Ion ranges (longitudinal, lateral and radial) and the total target damage as a function of proton energies, which are calculated by TRIM computer code. The electronic stopping powers were calculated by Bethe-Bloch model, which have showed good coincidence with the TRIM results with 0.99 correlation factor. The ionization process is predominated through track of protons in tissues of the prostate, which yields a steep increase in total stopping power with penetration distance leading to the Bragg peak close to the end of range of the proton beams. The skewness and kurtosis are calculated, the negative sign of skewness for all spectra indicated that left tail (towards the surface of incidence protons) is larger than right (away from the surface) leading to reduce side effects to the neighboring normal tissues. The positive value of kurtosis means that the spectra are peaked. This indicates that the precise dose localization is delivered to the tissues. Proton therapy offers the benefit of specified dose localization and has favorable dose-depth distributions, compared with photon beam radiotherapy. The angular distribution of protons with different energies are studied to reach the tumor in any position in prostate, it is noticed that at angle of 45 degree, there is equidimensional ion ranges. The total target damage increases with proton energies with values (0.58 - 1.7) KeV/ion for ranges energy (60 - 250) MeV respectively. In order to reach the tumor, the proton beam direction could be changed in definite steps or turned on and off very quickly.Volumes of the different shapes of prostates change according to age and kinds of the tumor, which are prolate ellipsoid, prolate spheroid, or spherical shape. This leads to select the precise proton energy to prevent the spread of radiation outside the prostate.This theoretical study can be considered as a tool and an indication to determine the precise proton energy required for prostate cancer treatment to minimize the side effects. Proton therapy is a promising technology as a result of the rapid development of nuclear accelerators.


Article
Effect of Extracts of Eruca sativa Mill. on the Growth Inhibition of Some Fungal Species
تأثير مستخلصات نبات الجرجير .Eruca sativa Mill في تثبيط نمو بعض الفطريات

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out to show the effect of extracts (aqueous, alkaloid and glycosides) of Eruca sativa Mill. on the fungal growth, the results revealed the inhibitory effectiveness of the aqueous, alcoholic and glycosides extracts of E. sativa by four different concentrations (10%, 20%, 40% and 100% mg/ml) on the growth of three fungal species in three different genera (Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium and Pencellium sp.). The results showed that these concentrations of the aqueous extracts have an impact on inhibiting the growth of two fungal species (Pencellium sp. and F. oxysporium) variously, while the same concentrations of aqueous extracts did not affect on the growth of A. niger as well as it showed the ineffectiveness of various concentrations of alcoholic extracts in the inhibition of these fungi, whereas it was appeared the effectiveness of the same concentrations of glycoside extracts in the inhibition of two fungi F. oxysporium and Penceillium sp differently, whilst the same concentrations did not inhibit the growth of A. nigar


Article
Assessment of bacterial contamination and antibiotics susceptibility of pathogenic Bacteria in the operating theaters in AL-Batool teaching hospital
تقييم نسبة التلوث الميكروبي والعزلات البكتيرية المقاومة للمضادات الحيوية في صالات العمليات في مستشفى البتول التعليمي

المؤلفون: Burooj Mohammed Razooqi بروج محمد رزوقي
الصفحات: 174-183
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الخلاصة

Back ground: - Surgical wound pathogens is one of the most complica¬tions in every kinds of surgery. Surgical pathogens can be fatal or lead to a poorly diagnosis, causing critical trouble to both patients and doctors. Objective:-To assess of the contamination rate and antibiotics susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria in the operating theaters in Al-Batool teaching hospital. Materials and Methods :- This study was done in the Al-Batool teaching hospital in Diyala province for the period from one July 2015 to one February 2016 .192 swabs were taken from different sites from operating theaters included:-operative couch ,wall and floors ,air outlets ,surgical instrument ,water tape, door knob, guess . Were taken cultured on different culture media and submitted to a serial of different biochemical tests for the diagnosis of type of bacteria. and the cultures were tested for antibiotics sensitive to evaluate their activity against pathogenic bacteria isolated from operating theaters. Results :- In this study taken 192 swabs , 160 (83.33 %) swabs show positive results for bacterial growth as single and mixed isolate, and 32(16.66 %)were negative (no growth). from 160 positive swabs were 202 single positive bacterial isolates, 116(57.42 %) gram negative bacteria, which include 66(56.89 %) Escherichia coli , 21( 18.1%)Enterobacter sp.,12(10.34%) klebsiella sp.,and11(9.48%) for pseudomonas aeruginosa . while 86( 42.57%) of bacterial isolates were gram positive include 49 (56.97 %) Staphylococcus epidermidis and 15 (17.44%) Staphylococcus aureus . The result shows high percentage of contamination with gram negative bacteria 38 (32.75 %) and26(22.41 %) during September and October while shows high percentage of contamination with gram positive bacteria 24(27.9%)and17,(19.76%)during January and December .The Cephalothin ,Cefotaxime and Rifampin are more effective against study isolates. Conclusion:- Contamination of operating theaters was the most dangerous problem .Which was responsible for 90% of opportunistic infections in hospital ,which may be came from another person , from patients flora ,or by contamination instruments in the operating rooms ,the rate of bacterial contamination was high during September and October.


Article
Studying The Effect of Cold Plasma on Living Tissues Using Images Texture analysis
دراسة تأثير البلازما الباردة على الأنسجة الحية باستخدام التحليل النسيجي للصور

المؤلفون: Sabah Noori Mazhir صباح نوري مزهر
الصفحات: 184-202
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الخلاصة

The Direct exposure of the high-voltage (10-40 kV) with non-thermal plasma discharges in atmospheric air is utilized to heal living creatures. This process needs a high degree of safety. In this paper, the mice have been exposed to the cold plasma for different intervals of time from 20 sec. to 65 sec. The 1st order and second order statistical feature were used to detect the changes which occur in the tissues, a comparison between the control and the wound part for all the using mice was achieved. This study shows that the tissues of mice have been changed in their structure when they are exposed to the cold plasma. This effect appeared from the light reflection from the skin. After 45 seconds exposure, the effect of the cold plasma appeared on the tissues. The best time of the skin wounds healing was at 65 seconds.


Article
Compactness in probabilistic Hilbert space
التراص في فضاء هلبرت الاحتمالي

المؤلفون: Waffa faeik keidan وفاء فايق غيدان
الصفحات: 203-214
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الخلاصة

In this paper we focus our study on weakly, strongly and uniformly convergence of operators in probabilistic Hilbert space (PH- space) and the relations between these convergence of operators. Also, we introduce the definition of operator in (PH- space).


Article
Identification Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From Different Infections And Study The Ability Of Nuclease Production
تشخيص بكتريا المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المعزولة من اصابات مختلفة و دراسة قابليتها على انتاج انزيم النيوكلييز

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted for the period from 1/3/2016 to 15/6/2016 in Baquba city in Iraq. Eighty samples were collected from different infections from Baquba General Hospital and AL-Batool Hospital. Twenty isolates (25%) were found to be Staphylococcus aureus . The susceptibility test was applied on these isolates against (12) antibiotics. The results revealed that the highest resistances were for Penicillin and Methicillin with 100% for each, while the lowest resistance were for Erythromycin (6.3%) and Vancomycin (9.1%). The results of virulence factors that had S. aureus showed possession of all isolates many virulence factors and a high production of which increases the pathoginicity of it. All isolates were able to produce urease (100%), heamolycin (100%), protease (85%), lipase (80%) and gelatinase (100%). Twenty isolates were screening for nuclease production, the isolates SA9 and SA19 were found to be an efficient nuclease production, 30mm the diameter of clear zone around colonies were cultured on DNase agar.


Article
Molecular Detection of EGFR Mutation in Lung Cancer Using Bioinformatics Database with PCR Technique
الكشف الجزيئي لطفرة EGFR في سرطان الرئة باستخدام قاعدة بيانات معلومات حيوية مع تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل

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الخلاصة

The aim of this study was to design a new model of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic method using mouse genome for one rare epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations with diagnostic and prognostic values in lung cancer (this mutation are not covered by commercial test kits). From the systematic database search, one rare mutations identified which is within the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain of EGFR, with an insertion mutation in exon 20 namely A763_Y764insFQEA. For designing primers to detect the targeted regions surrounding the rare mutations, Primer3 Plus was carried out to design two sets of PCR primers for exon 20 of mouse EGFR gene. UCSC (University of California Santa Cruz) in silico PCR testing along with BLASTN search were used for primer specificity in terms of predicted target location (chromosome 11 for exon 20) and predicted amplicon sizes (276 bp for exon 20). PCR was partially optimised for the exon 20 with the presence of expected amplicon bands, along with unspecific and primer-dimer bands. The amplicon was sequenced and revealed the presence of the mutation. The mutation of interest selected was A763_Y764insFQEA (insertion of phenylalanine, glutamine, glutamic acid and alanine in between codon 763 and 764) in exon 20, the mutation was in the kinase domain of EGFR. The Identification and Analysis for rare mutations via this way is sensitive, simple, accurate and inexpensive technique. It is used as genetic markers for allelic and mutational sequence variation.


Article
Determination of recovered Cadmium and Nickel from spent alkaline batteries using acidic solutions and AAS measurements
تقدير الكادميوم والنيكل المستردة من البطاريات القاعدية المستهلكة باستخدام محاليل حامضية وقياسات الامتصاص الذري

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الخلاصة

This research include the recovery study of cadmium and nickel from spent alkaline batteries was conducted by two different acidic solutions. The first one is nitric acid, which was used for cadmium recovery; the other is sulfuric acid, which was used for nickel recovery. Many factors affected the recovery process were studied, such as concentration, volume, time, weight and temperature. The parameters which effect on the precipitation of metal ion from leaching solution were also studied, such as pH, time, concentration and temperature. The recovery percentages of metal ion were found to be 98.5% of cadmium using optimum conditions (5 M HNO3, 2 gm sample, 2 hr, and 20 ml acid volume) and 99% for nickel using (5 M H2SO4, 2 gm sample, 2 hr, and 20 ml acid volume). The precipitation processes were carried out using (2 M NaOH) solution. The precipitation percentages were found to be 98.6% and 99.1% of cadmium and nickel respectively. The purification processes were conducted using double distilled water. The purity of products Cd (OH)2 and Ni (OH)2 was found to be 98.08% and 98.23% respectively. The concentration of metal ion in the solutions was measured using AAS; the method was linear with R2 of (0.9995 and 0.9993) for Ni and Cd respectively.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization And Theoretical Study Of Zn(Ii) Complex With New Schiff Base
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة نظرية لمعقد الخارصين الثنائي مع قاعدة شف جديدة

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الخلاصة

New Schiff base2-(5-Chloro-3,3-dimethyl-1,3-dihydro-indol-2-ylidene)-3-(2-hydroxy-phenylimino)-propionaldehydecontaining indole ring as ligand has been synthesized. Metal complex of this ligand with divalent zinc ion was prepared. Prepared compounds were characterized basd on FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR spectra, atomic absorption and chlorine determination to identify the final geometry of the complex. Experimental and computational study using Hartree-Fockmethod was carried out to confirm the most probable geometry.


Article
Preparation Eco-Friend and Characteristic of Gold Nanoparticles by Orchid and Gum Arabic as a Reducing Agent
التحضير بالطريقة الخضراء والتشخيص لمواد الذهب النانوية باستعمال الصمغ العربي والسحلب كعوامل مختزلة

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الخلاصة

Eco-friendly green synthesis is one of the favorable branches of nanoscience for usage in different biomedical fields this option due to nontoxic and very low cost of synthesis. we describe the preparation of gold nanoparticles using an orchid (polysaccharide) and gum arabic as reducing agent and use new method ( inverse method) in preparation , a new easy and economical method has been developed by adding the gold ion (Au3+) solution to the reducing agent solution with heating and stirring . Green synthesis of gold nano particle using various natural material reduces aqueous HAuCl4.3H2O to Au°. Synthesized nano particle is confirmed by the change of color of chloroauric acid which is yellow in color, and growth of nanoparicle was monitored by surface plasmon behavior using UV-Vis Spectroscopy.The prepared gold nanoparticles was characterized by a peak at 528 nm for both orchid and gum Arabic, zeta potential, AFM, and detect clearly TEM images and the size of the gold nanoparticles were14-30 nm for orchid and 20- 50nm for gum Arabic in size. Morphology whereas TEM image shows different shapes like hexagonal, and spherical.

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