Table of content

Journal of Engineering

مجلة الهندسة

ISSN: 17264073
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Journal Engineering was issued in 1986. It was Stopped from 1990 – 1997 because of the economic blockade. It restarted publication after the fourth scientific engineering conference for it published the papers that were accepted in the conference.
It is a scientific engineering journal refereed by specialized and qualified professors in most of the engineering fields and those Specialists in the issued by the college of Engineering university of Baghdad .It was serenely publibued , but from 2011 it has issued of monthly for the numerous papers submitted to the journal to publish their papers in this scientific journal in addition to some of the Arabs professors because the journal is considered one of the valued journals in the Arabic homelan .
Many professions were the head editor of the journal from its first issue. The first one was prof.dr. Laith Ismail Namiq then prof.dr. Mohammed A.Alawis ,prof.dr.Ali A Al – kilidar prof.dr. Abdul-Ilah Younis and currently Prof.dr.Qais S. Ismail.

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Jadriyah, Baghdad
Iraq
Mobile:
Email: joengbag@uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2017 volume:23 issue:5

Article
Estimation Curve Numbers using GIS and Hec-GeoHMS Model
تقدير ارقام المنحي CN بأستخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافية GIS وHec -geo Hms

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Abstract

Recently, the development and application of the hydrological models based on Geographical Information System (GIS) has increased around the world. One of the most important applications of GIS is mapping the Curve Number (CN) of a catchment. In this research, three softwares, such as an ArcView GIS 9.3 with ArcInfo, Arc Hydro Tool and Geospatial Hydrologic Modeling Extension (Hec-GeoHMS) model for ArcView GIS 9.3, were used to calculate CN of (19210 ha) Salt Creek watershed (SC) which is located in Osage County, Oklahoma, USA. Multi layers were combined and examined using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcMap 2009. These layers are soil layer (Soil Survey Geographic SSURGO), 30 m x 30 m resolution of Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use layer (LU), “Look–Up tables” and other layers resulted from running the software. Curve Number which expresses a catchment’s response to a storm event has been estimated in this study to each land parcel based on LU layer and soil layer within each parcel. The results showed that a CN of 100 (dark Blue) means surface water. The high curve numbers (100 -81) (Blue and light Blue) corresponding to urbanized areas means high runoff and low infiltration; whereas low curve numbers (77- 58) (Brown and light Brown) corresponding to the forested area means low runoff and high infiltration. Four classes of land cover have been identified; these are surface water, medium residential, forest and agriculture.


Article
Study the effect of microbial factor on the qualities and characteristics of Novolak composite material, reinforced glass fibers / Asbestos fibers.
دراسة تأثير العامل المايكروبي على صفات وخصائص متراكبة النوفولاك المدعم بألياف الزجاج/ الاسبست

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Abstract

The study was reflection of the impact of the widespread use of polymer Novolak composite reinforced Glass fiber and Asbestos fiber once again with weight fraction 60% on the physical properties, which included (Hardness, Compressive deformation, compressive modulus of elasticity, Flexural modulus of elasticity, Resilience modulus, the maximum of Flexural strength, Flexural strain energy and Shear strength inner layers); it is known how much important the media as a source of bacterial contamination, which contributes directly or indirectly in the process of aging of these materials. These Novolak composite reinforced, prepared by weight fraction of (10%) and (14%) of the Hexamethylene-tetraamine (HMTA) hardener material. It showed the results of the comparison, the composite prepared to offer bacterial media, negatively effect on Hardness, Compressive strengths, Flexural strength and Flexural strain stored energy The research also concluded clear results, which is that there is the possibility to delay the aging process of the presence of bacterial circles, using glass fibers in the polymer Novolak composite reinforced, more than it is the use of asbestos fiber. And increase the weight fraction of hardener material to be 14%, coefficient of resilience reversal less than it is in the rest of the models, which leads to raise the value of the work done at the end of proportionality.

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Article
Evaluation of Urban Planning Projects Criteria Using Fuzzy AHP Technique
تقييم معايير مشاريع التخطيط الحضري باستخدام تقنية Fuzzy AHP

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Abstract

In this research, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process technique is applied (Fuzzy AHP) which is one of multi-criteria decision making techniques to evaluate the criteria for urban planning projects, the project of developing master plan of Al-Muqdadiyah city to 2035 has been chosen as a case study. The researcher prepared a list of criteria in addition to the authorized departments criteria and previous researches in order to choose optimized master plan according to these criteria. This research aims at employing the foundations of (Fuzzy AHP) technique in evaluating urban planning criteria precisely and flexible. The results of the data analysis to the individuals of the sample who are specialists, in this aspect. The land use criteria are more important than the rest of the criteria in these projects, where it received the relative importance with percentile (42.1 %).


Article
Influence of Internal Sulfate Attack on Some Properties of Self Compacted Concrete
تأثير مهاجمة الاملاح الداخلية على بعض خواص الخرسانة ذاتية الرص

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Abstract

Self-compacted concrete (SCC) is a highly flowable concrete, with no segregation which can be spread into place by filling the structures framework and permeate the reinforcement without any compaction or mechanical consolidation ACI 237R-14. One of the most important problems faced by concrete industry in Iraq and Gulf Arab land is deterioration due to internal sulfate attack (ISA) that causes damage of concrete and consequently reduces its compressive strength, increases expansion and may lead to its cracking and destruction. The experimental program was focused to study two ordinary Portland cements with different chemical composition with (5, 10 and 15) % percentage of high reactivity metakaoline (HRM) as a cement replacement and with W/Cm ratio 0.35. The SCC mixes with AL Shemalia OPC cement that produced in Saudi Arabia (C3A=7.02%) shows higher resistance to ISA than mixes with Tasluja OPC cement that is produced in Iraq (C3A=4.13%). The results indicate that the SCC mixes containing 15% HRM shows higher opposition to ISA. A good correlation was obtained between concrete splitting tensile strength and compressive strength from the results of this study.


Article
Effect of Construction Joints on the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams
تأثير المفاصل الانشائية على تصرف العتبات الخرسانية المسلحة

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Abstract

In this study, the effect of construction joints on the performance of reinforced concrete beams was experimentally investigated. Seven beam specimens, with dimensions of 200×100×1000 mm, were fabricated. The variables were considered including; the location and configuration of the joints. One beam was cast without a joint (Reference specimen), two specimens were fabricated with a one horizontal joint located either at tension, or compression zone. The fourth beam had two horizontal joints placed at tension, and compression area. The remaining specimens were with one or two inclined joints positioned at the shear span or beam’s mid-span. The specimens were subjected to a monotonic central concentrated loading until the failure. The results of the experimental program indicated that the best location of the construction joint is at the compression zone. The presence of the horizontal construction joint at tension zone resulted in a reduction in strength of beams, about 5% - 7.5%, relative to the reference beam. However, the inclined construction joint had a little effect on the collapse load of beams, about 1.25% - 2.5%.


Article
Sustainable Roadway Planning: A Model for a Proposed Rating System in Iraq
التخطيط المستدام لمشاريع الطرق: نموذج نظام تقييم مقترح في العراق

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Abstract

The goal of the research is to develop a sustainable rating system for roadway projects in Iraq for all of the life cycle stages of the projects which are (planning, design, construction and operation and maintenance). This paper investigates the criteria and its weightings of the suggested roadway rating system depending on sustainable planning activities. The methodology started in suggesting a group of sustainable criteria for planning stage and then suggesting weights from (1-5) points for each one of it. After that data were collected by using a closed questionnaire directed to the roadway experts group in order to verify the criteria weightings based on the relative importance of the roadway related impacts that each credit addresses. Statistical analysis for expert's answers have been evaluated by using factor analysis method to ensure the compatibility and validity of credits selected for the rating system and the actual weights conducted for each criteria by using the factor analysis method by using SPSS program V.19. Finally the researcher put the details for each criterion that contain from aim, requirements and strategies. The researcher reached to that the study of the all life cycle stages is important to make a clear comparison between the roles of the criteria in different stages.


Article
Implementation of a Proposed Load-Shedding System Using Altera DE2 FPGA
بناء منظومة مقترحة لعزل الاحمال باستعمال مصفوفة البوابات المنطقية القابلة لإعادة البرمجة

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Abstract

A load-shedding controller suitable for small to medium size loads is designed and implemented based on preprogrammed priorities and power consumption for individual loads. The main controller decides if a particular load can be switched ON or not according to the amount of available power generation, load consumption and loads priorities. When the maximum allowed power consumption is reached and the user want to deliver power to additional load, the controller will decide if this particular load should be denied receiving power if its priority is low. Otherwise, it can be granted to receive power if its priority is high and in this case lower priority loads are automatically switched OFF in order not to overload the power generation. The main idea of the proposed LS controller is to minimize the amount of the isolated load without overloading the power system. In this paper, three versions of load shedding controller were implemented using Altera DE2-115 FPGA; with number of loads equal 32, 64 and 128 for each controller.


Article
Biotreatment of Slaughterhouse Wastewater Accompanied with Electrcity Generation and Nutrients Recovery in Microbial Fuel Cell
المعالجة البايولوجية للمطروحات السائلة من المجازر مع توليد الطاقة الكهربائية وأسترجاع المغذيات في خلية الوقود الأحيائية

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Abstract

In recent years and decades, there is a great need for developing new alternative energy sources or renewable sustainable energy. On the other hand, new technology approaches are growing towards benefits from the valuable nutrients in wastewater which are unrecoverable by traditional wastewater treatment processes. In the current study, a novel integrated system of microbial fuel cell and anoxic bioreactor (MFC-ANB) was designed and constructed to investigate its potential for slaughterhouses wastewater treatment, nitrogen recovery, and power generation. The system consisted of a double-chamber tubular type MFC with biocathode inoculated with freshly collected activated sludge. The MFC-ANB system was continuously fed with real-field slaughterhouse wastewater, with initial concentrations of COD and ammonium were 990 mg/L and 200 mg-N/L, respectively. The MFC-ANB system was operated for a total period of 43 days. Maximum removal efficiencies of COD, ammonium, nitrate, nitrogen recovery, Columbic efficiency, and power generation were 99%, 99.3%, 100%, 100%, 13.37% and 162.22 mW/m2, respectively.


Article
Experimental Study on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics of Single Layer Graphene Based DI-water Nanofluid in a Circular Tube under Laminar Flow and Different Heat Fluxes as Boundary Conditions
دراسة تجريبية على خصائص انتقال الحرارة ومعامل الاحتكاك لمائع نانوي احادي الطبقة (كرافين-ماء) في انبوب دائري تحت الجريان الانسيابي واحمال حرارية مختلفة كشروط حدودية

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Abstract

An experimental study was performed to estimate the forced convection heat transfer performance and the pressure drop of a single layer graphene (GNPs) based DI-water nanofluid in a circular tube under a laminar flow and a uniform heat flux boundary conditions. The viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid at weight concentrations of (0.1 to 1 wt%) were measured. The effects of the velocity of flow, heat flux and nanoparticle weight concentrations on the enhancement of the heat transfer are examined. The Nusselt number of the GNPs nanofluid was enhanced as the heat flux and the velocity of flow rate increased, and the maximum Nusselt number ratio (Nu nanofluid/ Nu base fluid) and thermal performance factor was (1.45) and (1.24) respectively, by using (1wt%) concentration and q=6104W/m2 heat flux. Finally, an analysis of the thermal performance factor shows that the GNPs nanofluids could work as a good alternative conventional working fluid in thermal heat transfer applications.


Article
The Effect of Fin Design on Thermal Performance of Heat Sink
تأثير تصميم الزعنفة على أداء المشتت الحراري

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Abstract

An experimental and computational study is conducted to analyze the thermal performance of heat sinks and to pick up more profound information in this imperative field in the electronic cooling. One important approach to improve the heat transfer on the air-side of the heat exchanger is to adjust the fin geometry. Experiments are conducted to explore the impact of the changing of diverse operational and geometrical parameters on the heat sink thermal performance. The working fluid used is air. Operational parameters includes: air Reynolds number (from 23597 to 3848.9) and heat flux (from 3954 to 38357 W/m2). Conformational parameters includes: change the direction of air flow and the area of conduction/convection. Six parallel plate heat sinks are fabricated and tested in small wind tunnel: flat plate, cross-cut, perforated, perforated cross-cut, zigzag and serpentine. Three-dimensional numerical simulations using commercial available FLUENT 15 software, based on the Navier–Stokes equations standard k-ε applied turbulence model and energy equation, are acquired for forced convection of air in same heat sinks under the same experimental conditions. It is found that the numerical prediction of base temperature is in good agreement with experimental data. Results show that the Reynolds number has a significant effect on the thermal performance of the system. With increasing free stream velocity, the heat transfer coefficient increases and consequently the thermal resistance decreases. Furthermore, it is found that the heat transfer coefficient and thermal resistance are depending on heat flux. From the comparison analysis of various geometries of heat sinks, the perforated-cut heat sink showed the best thermal performance indicated heights Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient, lowest thermal resistance.


Article
Compatibility between Hydraulic and Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Water Filters
توافق الخصائص الهيدروليكية والميكانيكية لمرشحات الماء الخزفية

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Abstract

In this paper, ceramic water filters were produced by using ten mixtures of different ratios of red clay and sawdust under different production conditions. The physical properties of these filters were tested. The production conditions include five press pressures ranged from 10 to 50MPa and a firing schedule having three different final temperatures of 1000, 1070, and 1100˚C. The tests results of the physical properties were used to obtain best compatibility between the hydraulic and the mechanical properties of these filters. Results showed that as the press pressure and the firing temperature are increased, the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths of the produced filters are increased, while, the porosity and absorption are decreased. As the sawdust content is increased the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths are decreased, while, the porosity and absorption are increased. High hydraulic conductivity is obtained at a firing temperature of 1070˚C when the sawdust content is less than 10%. Otherwise, it is increased as sawdust content and the firing temperature are increased. Filters made of mixture 92.5% red clay and 7.5% sawdust formed under a press pressure of 20MPa and a firing temperature of 1070˚C gave the best compatibility between hydraulic and mechanical properties. In this case, the hydraulic conductivity was 50mm/day, the compressive strength was 14MPa, and the bending strength was 10.8MPa.

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