Influence of diabetes disease on concentration of total protein, albumin and globulins in saliva and serum: A comparative study

Abstract

Proteins play a central role in cell function and cell structure, serum and saliva contain mixture of protein differing in origin and function, the amount of protein in the vascular depends on the balance between the rate of synthesis and the rate of catabolism or loss(1) .It is a well-established and evidence based fact that plasma protein level may suffer changes during disease (2) .The use of plasma protein in the diagnosis of various diseases and provide pathophysiological information has increased markedly over the past decade, of the more than 100 plasma proteins which have been characterized from a basic biochemical stand point; relatively few have well documented clinical significance(3). Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous metabolic disease which is characterized by hyperglycemia and long term complication (4). Monitoring people with diabetes involves repeated estimation of plasma glucose by finger pricks or by intravenous blood sampling (5). Hence, a noninvasive procedure for glucose measurement almost precious under circumstance (5).Incidentally an array of oral manifestation has been reported in the diabetic population, such as dental caries, unexplained dentalgia, oral mucosal lesions, infection, burning, mouth syndrome and taste disorder (6). Oral physicians tend to play a pivotal role in detecting and diagnosing this endocrine disease on the bases of the oral signs and symptoms (7). Recently many researchers have been directed toward using saliva components as surrogate for systemic biomarker in blood(1). Saliva has long been viewed as unique yet complex body fluids, like plasma and serum. Saliva is easy to collect by noninvasive method and preservation is inexpensive. The diagnostic value of saliva lies into components, flow and structure of gland (8). Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous metabolic disease which is characterized by hyperglycemia and long term complication. The aim of current research to study the influence of both types of diabetic diseases on concentration of total protein, albumin and globulins. And to look out the possibility of using saliva rather than serum, as a diagnostic fluid to follow the changes in these parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 109 patients with Diabetes disease, 72 with type І (T1DM) and 37 with type ІI (T2DM) 68 age and gender matched healthy individuals were the samples of the present study. Concentration of total proteins, albumin and globulins were measured in both saliva and sera samples of the patients and the healthy individuals (control group).Results: Total protein measurement results revealed presence of highly significant decrease in serum and highly significant increase in saliva samples of patients with both types of the disease. Albumin concentration was found to decrease significantly in sera and saliva samples of patients with both types of diabetic and highly significant increase was observed in globulins concentration in sera and saliva samples of the patients groups in comparison to the control groups.Conclusion: the result of the present study suggests the possibility of using measurement of total protein concentration and globulins concentration in saliva of type 1 of diabetes as a reflection of the changes that occur in these parameters in serum of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).