Evaluation of the Ground Water in Baghdad Governorate / Iraq

Abstract

The coverage area of Baghdad Governorate area is considered as a part of the Mesopotamia plain, which belongs to the unstable shelf. This area is totally covered by quaternary sediments. The sediments are composed mainly by cyclic alteration of clay, silt, sand and very fine gravels. Quaternary sediments represent the main aquifer for all parts of Baghdad governorate. Arc GIS 9.3 and GMS 6.5 programs were used in drawing high accurate estimating maps, to define salinity, type of the ground waters, the general direction of their movement, the distribution values of transmissivity of upper aquifer, with distribution and the amount of draw down for these wells, also drawing map for the ground waters depth zones. It can be concluded that the salinity of the ground water in Baghdad Governorate ranges between (fresh water – Brine water) in general, with the predominance of chloridic water type and the presence of sulphatic water type in other places. The direction of the ground water movement is mainly from the west towards the east and north and southeast, with the presence of local movements other directions. The transmissivity coefficient ranges between (50 – 350) m2 / day in general, but these values decrease toward the east, especially east of the Tigris River as indicated by the level of draw down in the wells, which ranges between (2 – 10) m. The results reflect that the ground water depth in Baghdad Governorate ranges between (2 – 50) m depending on the distance from the river and irrigation channels, which are considered as sources of water recharge to the ground water.