Background:Endoscopic evaluations are commonly included within work up of unexplained anemia.Objectives:Defining the value of the oesophageogastroduodenscopy as routine investigation in anemic patients in concern with gross pathological findings, as well as determining its importance in state of anemia in relation to age and gender.Methods:It is a retrospective study reviewed 89 anemic patient reports, at the Oesophageogastroduodenscopy clinic, Al-Imammian Al-Kadhimain Medical City throughout the period between Oct 2011-Jan 2013. The following data had been reported from the patients files and included; gender, age, referral indication (which should be anemia with or without accompanying symptom) and their gross endoscopic pathological findings.Results:The mean age was 46±17.36 years with range of 13-80 years. Male to female ratio (1:1.23). Majority of patients 50.6 %were referred due to lack of obvious cause to their anemia in absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. The most frequent finding is normal report in 33.7% followed by gastritis in 18%. Almost 82.5% of male patients were reported to have abnormal oesophageogastroduodenscopy in comparison to female patients (53.06%) (p = 0.003). Male patients at or under 45 years is statistically highly significant to undergo screening for the cause of anemia by endoscopy in comparison to same age matched counterpart females (p = 0.015).Conclusion:It is important to apply practical algorithm in deciding the indication and value of referral anemic patients for oesophageogastroduodenscopy clinic considering young male patients and those with gastrointestinal tract symptoms as priorities after attempting to exclude all other possible causes, otherwise there will be no further yield by endoscopy in addition to exhaustion of resources.Keywords:Unexplained anemia, oesophageogastroduodenscopy