Impacted wisdom teeth, prevalence, pattern of impaction, complications and indication for extraction: A pilot clinic study in Iraqi population

Abstract

Introduction The third molars are the most frequently impacted teeth in the human oral cavity .The unerupted teeth are not, in themselves, pathological lesion but may induce pathology. Impaction can be present in different patterns and levels. Decision of removal or retention of impacted tooth is a matter of debate . Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of impaction, angular position of impacted wisdom , level of impaction, agenesis and the indications for extraction. Materials and Methods A sample of 880 patients( 498 males and 382 females ) with age range between 18 to 40 years old with the mean of 28.8 . The study took place in the hospital of surgical specialization in which all patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically by OPG . Of 880 patients 411pstients showed impaction of at least one tooth (table 3) .The total number of impacted teeth in the sample were 1100 and 57 missing teeth (table 4). Result Among 880 patients , 411 (46.7%) patients showed impaction of at least one tooth , the total number of impaction was 1100 wisdom teeth . of which 428 ( 38.9%) were in the maxilla and 672 (61.09%) were in the mandible. The most prevalent angular position was vertical angular (59.81%) followed by mesioangular (18.45%). Concerning level of impaction , Level C was the most prevalent in maxilla and mandible . Agenesis of third molar was seen in 57 teeth (1.61%). Of 1100 impacted third molar ,663 were subjected to surgical removal .The most common reasons ”indications” for patient referral to our surgical department were orthodontic reasons followed by pericoronitis, while the lowest was fracture mandible. Conclusion impaction pattern , the mandibular impaction is more prevalent than maxilla with vertical impaction is the commonest followed by mesioangular impaction while the inverted impaction is negligible. Level C impaction is the most common in both maxilla and mandible. Concerning the indication for extraction , the most common indication was orthodontic followed by pericoronits , caries with the lowest prevalent were mandibular fracture and lesions even when the lesion represent the absolute indication for extraction. Oral surgeon should build his decision to extract or not extract third molars on the most canonical scientific guidelines and what is best for each individual case.