Physical and Histological Evaluation of Coated Implant with Nano ZrO2 after Creation Titania Nanotubes


Background: Contact between implant material and bones must be strong and fast creation, to fulfill these properties appropriate surface modifications must apply on used implants. In this contribution; double surface modifications are applied on Ti-6Al-4V alloy to accelerate osseointegration.Materials and methods: Anodic process is utilized to create titania nanotubes (TNTs) on the screws made from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. These implants were coated with nano ZrO2 particles. Second modification was annealing anodized screws at 8000C, and implanted in tibiae of nine adult New Zealand white rabbits.Results: Physical and histological consequences of two surface modifications on Ti-6Al-4V alloy screws were studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images shows inhomogeneous distribution of TNTs on screws surfaces. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns illustrate the covering of first group samples with ZrO2 and transformation of Ti to its oxide (Rutile phase) for second group. These pattern shows that TiO2 had higher crystallinity and larger grain size than ZrO2. Atomic Force Microscopy images (AFM) shows the increasing of roughness, grain size and internal diameter of TNTs after annealing process. Coated implant with ZrO2 at 4 month duration shows threads with newly Haversian canal feature. Annealed implant at same duration shows well developed threads, base of implant illustrates bone trabeculae filled the base of implant bed with active osteoblast cells.Conclusion: Modification of implant's surface produced an improvement of osseointegration in comparison to untreated one.