Effect of immune modulation on brain ischemia reperfusion injury

Abstract

Cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury is a complex process resulting in cellular damage and death. Ischemia and reperfusion in the brain induces an inflammatory response which may exacerbate initial levels of tissue injury. In this study, we investigated the possible immune modulation of rosuvastatin in brain ischemia reperfusion injury via interfering with inflammation. Twenty four adult albino rats were randomized into four groups (each of 6) as follow: Group (1) sham group: the rats were subjected to the same surgical procedures as other groups but the common carotid arteries were not occluded; Group (2) control (ischemic-reperfused) group: the rats were subjected to the same surgical procedures as other groups with bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) for 30 min. followed by reperfusion for 1 hr but without drug; Group (3) control vehicle group: three days before surgery, rats received daily the vehicle of rosuvastatin drug, normal saline (0.9% Nacl) (1 ml/kg/day) intraperitoneally, then anesthesia and surgery with BCCAO for 30 min. followed by reperfusion for 1 hr were done and Group(4) rosuvastatin treated group: rats received daily rosuvastatin intraperitoneally. The dose of rosuvastatin was (10 mg/kg /day) for three days before the surgery, then anesthesia and surgery with BCCAO for 30 min. followed by reperfusion for 1 hr. At the end of the experiment, the levels of cerebral IL-6 significantly (p < 0.05) increased in control group as compared with the sham group. Histopothological analysis showed that rats in control group showed significant cerebral injury. Treatment with rosuvastatin significantly counteracted the increase in the cerebral levels of IL-6. Histopathological analysis revealed that rosuvastatin significantly reduced the severity of cerebral injury in the rats underwent BCCAO. We concluded that inflammatory cytokines are involved in global cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion. Cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury can be modified by rosuvastatin via its anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible immune modulation of rosuvastatin in brain ischemia reperfusion injury.