Prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy among Iraqi patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus


Background: Retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes appears to be a public health problem in Iraq; it is serious eye disease lead to sever visual impairment and blindness if not detected early.Objective: To estimate the prevalence of retinopathy among patientswith type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended National Center of Diabetes of Al-Mustansiriyah University in Baghdad and to determine the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at national center of diabetes of Al-Mustansiriyah University in Baghdad from January 2011 till January 2012. Two hundred eighty nine type 2 Iraqi diabetic patients with age> 35years and both sexes were included in this study. Diabetic Retinopathywas diagnosed by an ophthalmologist depending on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale adopted by American Academy of Ophthalmologyand the International Council of Ophthalmology.All the data were obtained from the records of the diabetic patients which include Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data, like duration of diabetes,the type of treatment of diabetic mellitus, hypertension body mass index, triglyceride leveland glycemic controlwhich was assessed by measuring HbA1c.Result: From 289 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 90 patients (33.1%) had retinopathy (47 males, 43 females). The mean±SDof the age was57.8±9.9years.Almosthalf of patientswereabove65 years oldand 69% residing in urban area. About 40% of the patients had diabetes for more than 15 years. 69%were treated with insulin 67% were hypertensive, 44% had body mass index>30,59%smokers,about 71% had HbA1c>7, and 66% had triglyceride>200.Conclusion: This study showed high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetic patients, with poor control of blood glucose, high triglyceride, longer diabetes duration, hypertension,insulin treatment and body mass index >30 are more prone to develop retinopathy