Cold Polar Air Masses Which Affect the Weather and Climate of Iraq

Abstract

It is possible to analyze air masses and trace their routs through the analysis of weather maps. The present research aims at the study of the continental and marine polar air masses which affect the weather and climate of Iraq for a minor 11 – year climate course starts in 1992 - 2002. Three stations in Mosul، Baghdad and Basra represent the parts of Iraq surface have been chosen. The present study is based on the analysis of the synoptic maps of the pressure levels، 1.000 mb at surface، 850 mb at height، and 500 mb for the nocturnal (00.00) and day (12.00) GMT observations.The research has also shown the effects of these masses on temperature، relative humidity and the climate phenomena which accompany these masses. It has been concluded that Iraq is affected by the dominance of the continental polar masses more than by the marine ones. The study results have concluded that the highest rate of the continental frequencies of (00.00) observation، (25.8)، which has last for (42.9) days، has been recorded by Mosul station. As for the (12.00) observation، Basra station has recorded the highest last period of (34.8) days. Baghdad and Basra stations have recorded the highest frequencies of marine polar masses which amounts to (2.29) frequencies. The highest last period which amounts to (3.79) and (3.39) for the two observations respectively has been recorded by Mosul station. The study has concluded that the highest disorder of air direction is at the level of (500) mb as long as the continental and marine masses last; the highest temperature have been recorded at the southern stations contrary to the relative humidity which has recorded its highest rates at the northern stations at the two masses. The highest last of the climate phenomena which accompany the continental and marine masses has been for the phenomena of fog and mist.