Determination of Flow through Homogeneous Earth Dams with Triangular Toe Filter


Finite element method with a computer program SEEP/W were utilized to determine the "quantity" of flow through homogeneous earth dams with triangular toe filter. The effect of angle of upstream slope, angle of downstream slope, angle of toe filter, height of dam, crest width of dam, free board, length of toe filter and coefficient of permeability on the quantity of seepage were studied. The results show that, the seepage quantity decreased with increasing angle of toe filter, free board height and crest width of dam. Also, from the results can be concluded that, the flow quantity increased with increasing angle of "upstream slope", angle of "downstream slope" and length of toe filter. Using statistical analysis by a SPSS-19 program, a new empirical equation was suggested to estimate the quantity of seepage through earth dams with triangular toe filter.