Dental caries severity in relation to selected salivary variables among a group of pregnant women in Baghdad city/Iraq


Background: During pregnancy many physiological, anatomical and biochemical changes take place that affectalmost all body systems. In the oral pregnant women have serious changes such as more sever dental caries.This study was conducted to measure dental caries severity and selected salivary variables (salivary flow rate, PH andviscosity)and to find the relation of dental caries with these salivary variables.Subjects, materials and methods: The study group consisted of 60 pregnant women that were divided into threeequal groups according to trimester (20 pregnant women in each trimester).They were selected randomly from theMaternal and Child Health Care Centers in Baghdad city, the age range was 20-25 years. In addition to 20 unmarriedwomen as a control group and matched with age. Stimulated salivary samples were collected .Then salivary flowrate, pH and viscosity were measured. Dental caries severity was recorded by using Decay, Missing and Filled index(D1-4MFS) using the criteria described by Manjie et al, (1989). Plaque index system by Silness and Löe, (1964) was usedfor measuring dental plaque thickness. For measuring dental calculus the calculus index component of theperiodontal diseases index (PDI) by Ramfjord (1959) was used.Results: Results of the current study revealed that dental caries parameter represented by (DMFT ,DMFS,DS and MS)were higher among pregnant than non –pregnant women with significant differences (p<0.05) for DMFT,DMFS andDS also all grades of lesion severity(D1-4)were higher among pregnant than non –pregnant women withnonsignificant differences(p>0.05).Almost all dental caries parameter were higher in the 2nd trimesters with highlysignificant difference (p<0.01) for D1,DS ,DMFS and DMFT among four groups .Concerning oral cleanliness both plaque and calculus indices recorded higher values among pregnant than nonpregnantwith highly significant difference for both (p<0.01). Values were higher during 2nd trimester with highsignificant and non-significant differences among four groups .Regarding the relations of dental caries with oralcleanliness ,it was found that all dental caries parameters recorded positive correlations with both plaque andcalculus indices with significant and highly significant relations Regarding salivary variables ,results revealed thatsalivary flow rate was higher among pregnant (especially in the 2nd trimester)than non-pregnant women but withnon-significant difference (p>0.05).On the other hand salivary PH value was lower among pregnant than nonpregnantwomen with highly significant difference (p<0.01)among them. Salivary PH was lowest in the 2nd trimesterwith highly significant difference (p<0.01) among four groups .Also Salivary viscosity was higher among pregnant thannon-pregnant women with highly significant difference (p<0.01) and it recorded higher mean value in the 3rdtrimester with highly significant difference among four groups (p<0.01). Salivary PH recorded inverse relation withalmost all dental caries parameters with significant relations with D4, MS and highly significant relations with DS,DMFSand DMFT ,while salivary flow rate and salivary viscosity revealed non-significant relations with dental cariesparameters (p>0.05).Conclusion: Dental caries severity was higher among pregnant women probably due to the effect of pregnancyitself on oral hygiene (higher plaque and calculus indices) and salivary variables (increased salivary acidity andviscosity).Therefore, intensive education and preventive programs should be directed for pregnant women