Comparison among pulp capping materials in: calcium ion release, pH change, solubility and water sorption(An in vitro study)


Background: Calcium hydroxide and calcium-silicate materials used as direct pulp capping materials. The aims of this in vitro study is to compare among these materials in, the calcium ion release and pH change in soaking water after immersion of materials’ specimens in deionized water. Also Solubility and water sorption of materials’ specimens measured after soaking time. Calcium-silicate materials used were Biodentine, TheraCal and MTA Plus.Materials and methods: Four materials used in this study; Urbical lining (as control group), Biodentine, TheraCal and MTA Plus. Ten discs fabricated from each tested material, by using plastic moulds of 9 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness. Each specimen was immersed in 10 ml of deionized water and stored at 37ºC using incubator for 3 hr, 24hr, 14 days and 30 days as a sequence. The amount of calcium ion (Ca+2) released in soaking water was measured in each tube using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Also pH analysis for soaking water measured by using pH meter. For solubility and water sorption measurement, the specimen (n=10) weighed with precision weighing scale before immersion in deionzed water to determine the initial Weight (W1) and immediately after weighing immersed in 10 mL of deionized water at 37 °C for 1 week using an incubator, then removed and weighing again (W2). The samples blotted dry using filter paper and dehydrated in an oven at 37 °C for 24 hr and weighed again (W3). Then percentage of solubility and water sorption were determined. The obtained data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests at 0.05 significant levels.Results: Statistical analysis showed highly significant differences (P<0. 05) among tested materials and in all tests (Ca+2 release, pH change, solubility and water sorption). Biodentine showed higher calcium ion released at four soaking time, with non significant difference with TheraCal and highly significant difference with MTA Plus and control group at 24 hr. immersion time; While MTA Plus showed non significant difference with control group at 24 hr. Less amount of calcium released was in control group. All tested materials induced alkalization of the soaking water that decreased with time. Means of solubility and water sorption showed that MTA Plus and biodentine had higher solubility in comparison with control group, while TheraCal showed less solubility than control group. The results of water sorption showed that less sorption percentage occurred in control group in comparison with other groups.Conclusion: calcium-silicate materials released more Ca+2 with time than calcium hydroxide. TheraCal showed less solubility and higher water sorption in comparison with control group. Biodentine and MTA Plus showed higher solubility and water sorption in comparison with TheraCal and control group