Fortifications of Eastern Baghdad through Ottoman era


Fortifications of Eastern Baghdad through Ottoman eraPhd. Saady I. Al- Daragy Center of revival of Arabian science heritage Baghdad university (Abstract)The wall of Eastern side considers one of the important prominence architect sign of Baghdad city through Abbasid era , it is surrounded by many shops, houses , the work had started in the period of caliph( Al-Mustathher Billah ) The reason behind building wall of Eastern Baghdad was wars , in addition to what the city had exposed floods of Tigris that is the matter which encouraged Abbasid caliph’s to surround it by wall to save from floods and embargo . This research tried to stop on the nature of building it knowing its dimensions as well as the era of city through estimating it by foreigners or maps that had been drew by engineers through 19th century , it also counted the number of big towers that can be considered castles , in addition to count small one to enhance the wall and strength it . The research concentrated on the entrance of the city with its four gates (Al-Sultan, Al-Thufariya ,Al-Tulasam and klotha)These gates as usual ones open through the day and close at night. The design of towers is different from others , the two doors (Al-wastany and Al-tulasam are circles whereas Al-Sultan door designed as square angles tower ,but Klotha one was precious.