Cadmium , nickel and lead in chocolates and candies from Baghdad markets in Iraq.


Background:Foods and food related products are imported or entered to the country by illegal ways , these foods may contain potential contaminants such as heavy metals . Among the most imported foods are chocolates and candieswhich consumed frequently by children.Objective:In this study, selected heavy metals; Cadmium (Cd) , Nickel (Ni) and Lead (Pb) were evaluated in commercial candies and chocolates products that are commonly consumed by children in Iraq. The chocolates which studied were Twix (Germany) , Mars and Galaxy (Emirates)and the candies were Melody Pops (Iraq), Caretos and Lip-Top (India) .Methods:Prospective study was done in Baghdad from January to April 2017. 60 samples of three brands of chocolates and threebrands of candies (10 samples for each brand) were analyzed for their content of Cd , Ni and Pb. Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS) was used for determination of metals under study .Results:Mean levels of Cd in three types of chocolates were 0.3282± 0.0203 µg/g in Twix chocolate , 0.323± 0.03199 µg/g in Mars chocolate and 0.329± 0.01912µg/g in Galaxy chocolate whereas mean levels of Cd in three types of candies were 0.0947± 0.00386 µg/g in Lip-Top candy , 0.093± 0.00368 µg/g in Melody – Pops candy and 0.0935± 0.003837 µg/g in Caretose candy, while mean levels of Ni in same types of chocolates were 4.38 ± 0.1109 µg/g , 4.23± 0.2111µg/g and 4.24± 0.2675µg/g respectively whereas mean levels of Ni in same types of candies were 1.417± 0.1µg/g , 1.376± 0.05461 µg/g and 1.422 ±0.0968µg/g respectively , in addition , mean levels of Pb in three types of chocolates were 2.212 ± 0.1398µg/g , 2.185± 0.200 µg/g and 2.305± 0.2166 µg/g respectively , whereas mean levels of Pb in three types of candies were 1.17 ± 0.1149 µg/g , 1.138± 0.08626µg/g and 1.159±0.07156 µg/g respectivelyConclusion:Contamination of chocolates and candies with these elements leads to health problems for citizens, especially children, and may lead to cancerous tumors. Therefore, children should be reduced to eating these foods. The government must strictly control the importation and entry of these foods.