Efficacy and Safety of a Single Rod – Contraceptive Implant (Implanon)

Abstract

Background : Implanon is a subdermal contraceptive implant involves the delivery of a steroid progestin(68 mg of etonogesterel) from a single rod placed under the skin at the inner side of the non-dominant upper arm and the hormone diffuses out slowly at a stable rate providing contraceptive effectiveness for 3 years. Advantages of Implanon includes long term contraceptive action without requiring the user's or provider's attention , low dose of highly effective contraception without use of estrogen and fertility is readily reversible after the removal of implant.Objectives: to assess contraceptive efficacy , safety and acceptability of Implanon .Materials and methods: the study was conducted in Iraq- Al-Samawa and Al-Diwaniya maternity and pediatrics teaching hospital, family planning clinics and privet clinics from the period of October 2012 – October 2014 that includes 41 sexually active women 18-45 years seeking for contraception with normal menstrual cycles , no history of ischemic heart disease or stroke and no history of breast or genital tract malignancy.Results: contraceptive efficacy of Implanon was 98% over 2 years follow up and the most common adverse experience was abnormal bleeding pattern in 100% of women ,as amenorrhea affects 51.22% , infrequent bleeding 26.82% ,prolonged bleeding 12.20% and metromenorhagia 9.76%.. Discontinuation rate was 2.44% because of menstrual bleeding abnormality. Other adverse experiences after Implanon insertion were weight gain of ≤ 5kg in7.32% after 2 years follow up , acne in 31.71% , mood changes in 21.95% and headache in 12.20%.Conclusions: Implanon is a safe , highly effective and rapidly reversible new method of contraception and the safety profile is acceptable and not essentially different from progestogens in general.