Measurement of Radioactivity in Flour and Macaroni Consumed in Basrah Governorate, Iraq and Evaluation of Gamma Dose Rates, Radiological Hazard Indices, Excess Life Time Cancer Risk and Ingestion Effective Dose

Abstract

The radioactivity levels of238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined in 17brands offlour (6 brands) and macaroni(11 brands) consumed in Basrah, Iraq.This papershowed a comparison of the gamma absorbed dose rates (D),annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE)and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR)for various types offlour and macaroni measured by SAM940-2G operating with BNC 2ʺx2ʺ gamma-ray NaI(Tl) detector along withthe thermoluminescencetechnique. For flour samples, the minimum specific activity values of 238U, 232Th, 40Kand 137Cs were 0.238±0.002 Bq/kg (at sample F1), 0.117±0.001 Bq/kg(at sample F4), 3.529±0.001 Bq/kg(at sample F4) and 0.040±0.007 Bq/kg(at sample F3) respectively, while the maximum values of the same isotopes were 0.325±0.002 Bq/kg(at sample F3),1.469±0.002 Bq/kg(at sample F5),102.348±0.001 Bq/kg(at sample F6) and0.179±0.003 Bq/kg(at sample F2) respectively. For macaroni samples, the minimum specific activity values of 238U, 232Th, 40Kand 137Cs were 0.195±0.002 Bq/kg(at sample M2),0.029±0.004 Bq/kg(at sample M1),40.390±0.001 Bq/kg(at sample M6)and0.01±0.008 Bq/kg(at sample M11)whereas the maximum values of the same isotopes were 1.430±0.002 Bq/kg(at sample M3),2.629±0.002 Bq/kg(at sample M11),294.495±0.001 Bq/kg(at sample M10) and0.566±0.002 Bq/kg(at sample M4).Various radiation hazard indices including the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the ingestion effective dose (HT,r), the internal hazard index (Hin), the external hazard index (Hex), the gamma index (Iγ) andthe alpha index (Iα) have been determined for all 17 samples. Allachieved results have been found to be undertheinternationallimit standards. Thus, selected flour and macaronitypes are safe to be consumed in Basrah governorate. The findings of thisstudycould be used as a first step to create radiological baseline data of the hazard radiation in basic foodstuffsconsumed in Basrah/Iraq.