Neuroblastoma: A Clinico-Epidemiological Study in AL-Khadhimyia Teaching Hospital

Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Neuroblastoma is the third most common childhood cancer, after leukemia and brain tumors, and is the most common solid extra cranial tumor in children. The term neuroblastoma is commonly used to refer to a spectrum of neuroblastic tumors (including neuroblastomas, ganglioneuroblastomas, and ganglioneuromas) that arise from primitive sympathetic ganglion cells.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this research is to study the epidemiological and clinical feature ofneuroblastoma in a group of Iraqi infants and children who were admitted to the pediatric ward of Al-Khadhimyia Teaching Hospital .PATIENTS AND METHOD:The study was done over a period of three months from 1st of Feb. 2010 to the end of Apr. 2010.In reviewing all files, 18 cases were collected from the Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Consultation Clinic in Al-Khadhimyia Teaching Hospital, they were diagnosed and treated consequently in the pediatric ward / hemato-oncology unit over a period of 9 years (2002-2010). Data regarding age, sex, residence, site of primary disease and clinical presentation were taken from the recording files in the pediatrics Hemato-Oncology Clinic. Methods used to diagnose our patients includes, fine needle aspiration of tumor mass, Bone marrow aspiration & biopsy of different sites. Chemotherapy was the main line of treatment.RESULTS:The total number of studied cases was eighteen cases. The median age was 15 months with male to female ratio of (0.63:1), 9 cases (50%) were below 1 year. Abdominal mass was the commonest site of tumor 12 cases (67%), weight loss was the most common symptom 18 cases (100%) followed by abdominal distention 14 cases(78%), abdominal mass represent the most common sign in 12 cases(67%). Stage IV was noticed in 9 cases (50%), 10 cases (56%) were a high risk group, 7 cases (38.8%) had bone marrow metastases, 6 cases (34%) finished treatment and survive, 4 cases( 22%) relapsed, 2 cases(11%) died.CONCLUSION:The majority of cases were recognized during the first two years of age .Female were involved more than male. The outcome of treated cases was good and accepted. Abdominal mass is the commonest site , weight loss is the commonest symptoms.