Cytogenetic Effects of Gestogens on Women with Threatened Miscarriage in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Abstract

Background: Gestogens have been recommended to have a place in the prevention of threatened miscarriage and spontaneous pregnancyloss during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Certain studies consider that this steroid hormone has genotoxic effect because they directlyinvolved in the change of DNA structure. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the cytogenetic effects of gestogens on peripheral bloodlymphocytes of pregnant women, by damaged cells and chromosomal aberrations, as well as evaluate the models for hormonal therapy in vivo.Materials and Methods: Blood sample from 30 women with threatened miscarriage, who received gestogen therapy in the first 3 months, Weretaken. Cytogenetic analyses and karyotyping were performed for Each patient Before and after therapy. Results: The numerical chromosomalaberrations which found in blood lymphocytes of women before taking gestogens were 44,XX and 48,XX. The same result was observed aftertaking gestogens. The percentage levels of structural chromosomal aberrations were ring chromosome (2.06%), chromatid breaks (12.47%),chromatid gaps (1.65%), dicentric (0.55%), acentric chromosome (4.02%), and interchange chromosome (12.5%). Whereas, the abnormalitiesafter treatment with gestogens were ring chromosome (5.31%), chromatid breaks (42.19%), chromatid gaps (20.86%), dicentric (7.50%),acentric chromosome (17.75%), and interchange chromosome (43.97%). Conclusion: Gestogens as hormonal substitute therapy do notinduce numerical chromosomal aberrations but have a significant increase of structural chromosomal aberrations Gestogens have genotoxiceffects on human lymphocyte chromosomes at wide range of concentrations. So the potential benefits and side effects of it must be weighedup against the deleterious effects.