ABSTRACTBackground and Objective: Cervical spondylosis is a broad term usually used to denote achronic degenerative condition generally ascribed to progress in age and other possible riskfactors. The disease is common and may lead to possible neurological deficits. There is thus aclear need for identifying its probable risk factors in order to better understand their controland prevention.Patients and methods: A case control study conducted at Duhok's Center for RheumaticDiseases during the period1st April - 30th September, 2014. Depending on the presence ofsymptoms and radiologic findings, 129 patients were selected and registered as ‘cases’ andanother 129 patients without radiological abnormalities were collected and registered as‘controls’. For each participant age, gender, marital status, weight, height, smoking status,family history, drug use and number of pillows were recorded. In addition, for men, thehistory of wearing Kurdish turban (Shashek) was recorded. The increased risk was estimatedby calculating the odds ratio and 95% CI.Results: Overall, age was found the most significant risk factor in both genders (OR13.55).For women, the highest odds ratio related to chronic drug use (OR 4.01) followed by BMI(OR 3.44) and sedentary work (OR 2.64). For men, the highest odds ratio related to Shashekuse (OR 16.8) followed by sedentary work (OR 5.6) and smoking (OR 4.18). Physicalactivity of 150 min/week gave a statistically significant negative association in both menand women (OR of 0.34 and 0.18 respectively with a p value <0.05).Conclusions: Radiological cervical spondylosis is positively associated with aging andsedentary work in both genders. Significant positive associations were found with chronicdrug use and high BMI in women compared to significantly high association with theKurdish male turban (Shashek) and smoking in men.