Antimicrobial Effects of some Plants on Bacteria Isolated from Oral Halitosis Patients


Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of three herbs (Salvadora persica ,Nigella sativa , and Elettaria cardamomum) by using three different methods of extractions (aqueous , ethanolic, and Soxhelt apparatus technique) . Materials and methods: Twenty eight subjects suffered from oral halitosis their ages range(18-65)years. Fifty eight samples were collected by sterile paper points(size 50 )or sterile cotton swab and transported in thioglycolate broth and cultured on blood agar in aerobic or anaerobic conditions for 48-72 hours. The herbal extracts were qualitatively examined against thirteen microbial strains, zones of growth of inhibition were measured as indicators of anti-microbial activity compared to chlorohexidin gluconate 0.2%(as control ). Results: Thirteen microbial species were isolated in this study : (Bacteriodes species, Viridans Streptococci, Peptostreptococci spp., Actinomyces spp., Porphymonos spp., Fusobacterium spp., Veillonella spp., Non-coagulase Staphylococcus, Prevotella spp., Propinobacterium spp., Tetragenococci spp. ,Eubacterium spp., and Staph.aureus .Ethanolic extraction of S. persica exhibited notable antimicrobial activities against most of the tested strains(85%to the control), N. sativa was (6.3% of the control) and E cardamomum was (22.9% of the control),aqueous extraction of S. persica was (13.5%of the control), N. sativa was ( about 0%of the control)and E cardamomum was (6.8%of the control), Soxhelt apparatus extraction method of S. persica was (14% of the control), N. sativa was (8.5% of the control), and E. cardamomum was (12.6% of the control) . Conclusion: Ethanolic extraction of S. persica has the first inhibitory effect compared to the control in the species of Peptostreptococci, Actinomyces, and Staphylococcus aureus. So , S persica can be considered as an effective antimicrobial agent in inhibiting the growth of oral halitosis including pathogens, while neither E. cardamomum nor N. sativa can be considered as effective antimicrobial agents in inhibiting the growth of oral bacteria causing halitosis.