Land Forms in Bernan Mountain at Sulimanya Governorate Geomorphological Study

Abstract

This research contains many items which is the site of the study area. The study area lies in the north-east part of Iraq and in the southern part of Sulimanya Governorate, and south-west Derbandikan Dam. Its stretches longitudinally towards north-west/south-east covering an area of 954 km2, and lies between width 35 05 58 – 3533 00 north and longitude lines 45 45 29 45 07 27 east. The research contained an introduction dealing with land forms and the problem was limited by a question (does the interior and exterior geomorphological factors had a role in forming the land appearances of Bernan Mountain?). The hypothesis of the research answered the question (those factors had a distinguished role in forming the land appearances of Bernan Mountain). After that the researcher tried to show the aims and method of the research. A map for the study area has been drawn from Sulimanya Governorate and Iraq of the year 2015. A table was drawn representing astronomic sites of the chosen stations from area of study. They are the main constructive land forms which the reason of its formation was because of constitutional factors, some of these forms are cleaves, like Serwan cleaves, structural barricades, rocky materials, Questa, wild boar back, rocky sepulchers, rocky arches, and rocky openings. The research dealt with land forms resulted from exterior factors like weathering and baring. Some of these forms are rock pealing, mass dissolution, beehives, caves, and melted holes. The most important results that the researcher reached to was the phenomena of Questa and the measurement of bending of layers concerning the surface of phenomena has been measured ranging between (20-30) and the edge of Questa was 50. The height of phenomena in area of study was between (4-6 meters). Also Serwan cleave which Diyala river takes it as its stream for a distance of (3 km). Also, the difference between weathering holes and melted holes which is formed on surface and curves, while the melted holes were in form of collapses underground.