Prevalence of Epstein - Barr virus types in subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma in Kerbela city, Iraq


Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus associated with lymphomas. However, in Karbala as other parts of Iraq, EBV detection is not a part of the workup for lymphoma diagnosis. The aim of this study: to study the prevalence of EBV types in the subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma among patients from Kerbala province, Iraq. Methods: Archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded blocks from 31 patients with mean age 32.56±15.685 (range from 5 to 70years) diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma during the period from 2010 to 2018 in Karbala city included in this study. Histological diagnosis was reviewed. Around 25mg of archival tissue were used to extract DNA. DNA extracts were used Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the EBNA3C region of the viral genome. This PCR system offered detection and typing of the EBV. T-test and chi-square were used to evaluate the association between age with the subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma, gender and EBV state. Results: The majority of the Hodgkin lymphomas belonged Mixed Cellularity HL (MCHL) [n=18, 58%] where Nodular Sclerosis HL (NSHL) was seen in 42 % (n=13). The other subtypes of HL were not reported in this study. Male more affected with HL than female (16 vs.15) and the peak age range of HL 31to 40 years. EBV was detected in 18(58%) out of all cases. EBV type 1 was more common in MCHL were types 2 was the most common among NSHL cases. To our knowledge, this is the first time such data has been generated in Iraq. Conclusion: most of the HL cases in Kerbela are associated with EBV. there is a difference in the distribution of the EBV types according to the subtypes of lymphoma.