Evaluation of Chitosan as Dressing for Skin Wound. Histopathological Experimental Study in Rabbits

Abstract

To evaluate the effect of medical chitosan on wound healing. Materials and Methods: An experimental open skin wounds were made on the dorsal side of fifteen domestic rabbits. A 0.04gm of medical chitosan (degree of acetylation=90.0%) was applied. Each individual animal given intramuscular dose of kitamin hydrochloride (anesthetic and analgesic) 4mg/kg and xylazin base (anesthetic and muscle relaxant) 5mg/kg injected into rabbit’s thigh muscle. After 10-15 minutes, anesthetic integrity was checked by testing loss of ear pinch reflex. Four skin incisions were made in the dorsal site of the animal skin. Each incision was about 1cm in length. These incisions were divided into 4 groups according to placement of the material and suturing (Ca: control incision left without suturing or placement of material, Cs: control suturing of the incision only, Cha: chitosan placement only, Chs: chitosan placement and suturing of the incision). Post operatively single dose of 5mg/kg oxytetracycline antibiotic intramuscular injection was given immediately. The animals were randomly subdivided into three groups (G1, G2, G3) with five rabbits in each group and specimen obtained from each rabbit for histopathological study according to the time of sacrifices 3, 7, 14 days after surgery respectively. Biopsies took from each site of operation and examined by four histopathologists and the overall readings taken and processed statistically using SPSS version 18.0. Results: There was a significant variation in inflammatory response to chitosan when applied as powder dressing at all periods of healing. P-values were found to be 0.005, 0.022, 0.002 between four groups at 3, 7, 14 days respectively. While there was no significance in reepithelializeation between four groups at all periods of healing according to Pvalues of Friedman test. Conclusion: Medical chitosan appeared good healing accelerator by decreasing rate of inflammation and prevent infection