The effect of gamma ray on total leukocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils on blood samples of smokers compared to non-smoker donors


BACKGROUND: The immune system depends on white blood cells (WBCs) to fight infections inthe human body. Smoking tobacco causes the increasing of WBCs comparing with nonsmokers dueto virus infection and bronchitis. Exposing blood samples of smokers and non‑smokers donors togamma‑ray (γ‑ray) will affect the structure of the WBCs then as a result will cause the declination inthe values of total leukocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in the smokers’ blood is greater than ofnonsmokers and this confirms that these cells are more fragile, weak, and less tolerant to externalstimuli.OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to compare the effects of increasing doses of γ‑ray ontotal leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte count between smokers and non‑smokers.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were collectedfrom healthy donors: Ten smokers and ten nonsmokers. Samples of both groups were exposed toincremental doses of γ‑ray (5–40 Gy). Total and differential leukocyte count for each sample wasperformed by autoanalyzer.RESULTS: Smokers had higher average total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts thannonsmokers before exposure to radiation. However, they showed more decline than nonsmokersafter exposure to increasing doses of γ‑ray.CONCLUSIONS: By increases the doses of γ‑ray, the declining in the values of WBCs, lymphocytes,and neutrophils in the smokers blood is greater than of nonsmokers and this confirms that thesecells are more fragile, weak, and less tolerant to external stimuli.