Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in a sample of Iraqi patients with acute leukemia and stem cell transplantation

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acute leukemia and allogenic bone marrow transplantation BMT areimmunocompromised conditions which may be susceptible for many opportunistic infections orreactivation of latent infections like Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii).OBJECTIVES: The aims of study were to detect T.gondii in both acute leukemia patients andallogenic BMT recipients and to determine copy number of T.gondii in these groups in comparisonto healthy individual as control group.METHODS: Sixty one acute leukemia patients enrolled in a prospective study from 1st December 2016to 1st June 2017. Forty eight of them evaluated while induction chemotherapy (group I), while theother 13 within 1 year post bone marrow transplantation-BMT-(group II). In addition to 30 apparentlyhealthy individuals as (control group), blood samples were collected from all groups. T.gondii DNAwas extracted and then measured by Taqman quantitative real-time PCR. Measurement IgG andIgM antibody specific to T. gondii was investigated also in the control group by an enzyme-linkedimmune assay (ELISA).RESULTS: T.gondii parasitemia was detected in (8.3%) 4 out of 48 group I patient. While negativein group II and control group. The range of T.gondii load was (6.285×103-17.915×103) copy/ml, themean of the copy numbers 11458.75± 5120.85.CONCLUSION: T.gondii should be looked for Leukemic patients at least by routine serological testfor early diagnosis and early treatment if indicated. Quantitative PCR is used to monitor post BMTpatients at risk for T.gondii disease and for a timely start of preemptive therapy.