Echocardiography Assessment of the Left Ventricular Systolic Function and Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities Pre- and Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

Abstract

Background and Objective: Coronary artery disease is a significant global health problem and is a leading cause of disability and death.In this study, the effect of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery on left ventricular (LV) systolic functions and regional wall motionabnormalities in the 1st week and 3rd month after surgery was evaluated through echocardiographic techniques. Patients and Methods: Fiftypatients who underwent elective isolated CABG at Azadi Heart Center were included and studied prospectively from November 2018 toMay 2019. Transthoracic two‑dimensional echocardiography was used to assess the LV‑systolic function (LV ejection fraction [LVEF]) andwall motion score index (WMSI) and abnormalities. Results: Almost all patients had chest pain preoperatively, and 32% and 38% of themwere in Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Class III and IV, respectively. Ninety percent had multivessel disease, and the left anteriordescending was the most common vessel affected (86%), complete revascularization was done in all patients using 3–6 grafts, and left internalmammary artery was used in 48 patients (96%). There was no significant improvement in LVEF in the early postoperative period (P = 0.28).On the contrary, there was a highly significant improvement of LVEF lately postoperatively, which was improved from (49.62%–56.92%)at (P ≤ 0.001). As well, there was a substantial improvement of WMSI at lately postoperative (P = 0.026) that changed from (1.204 to 1.12).Conclusions: The present study suggests that CABG has a positive effect on LV systolic functions and regional wall motion abnormalities3‑month post‑operatively as confirmed through echocardiographic techniques.