The Role of Serum Vitamin D Deficency in oral Lichen Planus Case Control Study

Abstract

Background: Lichen planus is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory condition of unknown etiology affecting stratified squamous epithelial. The cell-mediated immunity has a role in both developing oral lichen planus, and immune system regulation, that’s why have role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The roles of vitamin D in an immune system and its anti-inflammatory effects have been indicated in recent study.Objective: To determine the level of serum vitamin D in patients with oral lichen planus and in compression with healthy subjects, and study the relation of serum vitamin D level with clinical types of oral lichen planus, symptom, and demography of oral lichen planus.Patients and Methods: Two group were designed in this case –control study, the first consist of 40 patients with oral Lichen planus, while the second is control group which include 40 healthy people. A 5-ml blood sample was taken from patients and healthy subjects. The serum vitamin D levels were assessed with a vitamin D total (25-hydroxy vitamin D) kit by employing the electrochemiluminescence technique. Results: Oral lichen planus mostly affect middle age female, the most common type of oral lichen planus was reticular type (95%) followed by erosive (57.5%) and atrophic oral lichen planus (45%). Mostly oral lichen planus appears on buccal mucosa bilaterally (95%). Vitamin D deficiency was higher in patient with oral lichen planus (60%) and (22.5%) in control group. The control group has more insufficient vitamin D level (22.5%) as compared to oral lichen planus patient(OLP) (15%), which was statistically significant. The mean of vitamin D level in serum of patients with oral lichen planus were 18.84 ±12.69 ng/ml and in healthy subjects were 31.28 ± 13.58ng/ml, that was statistically significant (P< 0.001).Conclusion: The deficiency in serum vitamin D level was not only related to the development of oral lichen planus, but it was also related to the symptom, and types of oral lichen planus.