The Most Practical Treatment Methods for Wastewaters: A Systematic Review


Numerous techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, and physicochemical methods were used for the treatment of the aquatic system in order to remove various pollutants such as organics, inorganics, and heavy metals from domestic and industrial effluents. The aim of the present study is to review the most practical wastewater treatment techniques such as the chemical precipitation, ion exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration, and electrochemical methods which are used for heavy metals removal. Many of published studies and dissertations were reviewed in this paper to evaluate the general specifications of these processes and their advantages and disadvantages. The results revealed that electrochemical methods have a wide attention among other techniques due to their capabilities of overcoming most of the problems that occur in the conventional methods from the environmental and economic view.