Study of Microbes that cause Ear infection associated with the use of pacifiers in children under 5 years old


The study was carried out in Kirkuk city from May 1st to November 1st 2015. These patients admitted to Kirkuk Children Hospital and primary health care centers of Kirkuk first health care sector. The number of children with Ear infection was 221 patients whom their ages were under 5 years old. The control group included 50 children who appeared healthy and they have never used pacifiers in the past. Ear swabs were cultured for all the patients and control. 70% of ear-cultured specimens gave positive results. Most isolates were Staph. aureus with 31% . Strep. pyogenes 4% . Strep. pneumonia 6% and 9%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa were present in ear in about 10% of the isolates. M. catarrhalis was also found in 3%. Some members of enterobacteriaceae were also found such as (E. coli in 5%, K. pneumonia in 3% and 6%, while P. mirabilis was found in 5%). A member of (yeast-like fungi) Candida alpicans was also found in ear in about 11%. As for the use of pacifiers, it shows that 66% of the total patients were using pacifiers or dummies, While 34% of them were not using pacifiers at all. The aim of this study was to explore possibility to limit the use of pacifiers in children to prevent ear infection.Conclusion : a possible connection may occur between the pacifiers use and ear infection due to the possible movement of the throat microbes through the auditory canal to the middle ear, which leads to otitis media infection