Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Correlate with Overweight and Obesity in Community‑Dwelling Old Adults

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D has different biological actions in the body. Vitamin D has the pleiotropic effects in multiple organ systems, andVitamin D deficiency (VDD) was suggested to be associated with overweight and obesity according to previous reports. Several interventionalstudies have examined the effect of Vitamin D supplementation on overweight and obesity. Objectives: the aim of this study is to identifythe prevalence of VDD and its correlate with overweight and obesity in community‑dwelling old adults. Materials and Methods: This wasa cross‑sectional study that included convenient consecutive sample of elderly people who attended the office of retired employees and theelders’ home in Hilla City‑Babylon Province–Iraq. The period of the study started from the first of January to September 2019, and a pretestedsemi‑structured questionnaire was used to interview the participants after obtaining their verbal consent. The sample included (300) old adultsof both genders; the serum level of Vitamin D was assessed by chemoimmunoassay method. The weight was measured in kilograms by usingweight measuring balanced scale for all individuals, and height was measured (in centimeters) by using a fixed board in standing position withoutshoes, the head in the horizontal plane. The body mass index was calculated according to weight in kg/height in m2. Results: The study included300 participants; most of the study sample had either insufficiency or deficiency of Vitamin D level. Obese and overweight elders in this studyhad significant low serum Vitamin D level (both deficiency and insufficiency of vitamin) as compared to the nonobese group; this differencewas statistically significant P < 0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant inverse relationship between Vitamin D level and excess bodyweight in Iraqi old adults.