The Effect of Salt Stress Conditions in Seed Germination Indicators, Seedlings Growth and Callus Initiation of Pisum sativum L. in Culture Media

Abstract

The research included a study of the effect of sodium chloride salt with concentrations 0,50,100,150,200,250 and 300 mM in growth and development of seedlings and calli of Pisum sativum L. seedlings. The results showed that increasing salt concentration in culture medium led to decrease the percentage of seeds germination and increasing the duration of germination which causing slow germination speed and decreasing in the lengths rate of each of the radical and coleoptile and their fresh and dry weights. Moreover the activity of α-amylase was decreased during different germination stages at 200 mM of NaCl according to the control. Salinity also caused a decrease in the rate of plant growth(plant height, root length, stem and root branches and fresh and dry weights of plant).The enhancement of NaCl in a medium was accompanied with a gradual decrease in total chlorophyll of leaves at different concentrations of salt. The results also indicated a negative effect of salinity in fresh and dry weights of callus, membrane damage and viability of callus which developed on MS medium supplement with 1mg/l of BA and NAA. The present study demonstrated the effects of NaCl in increasing the amount of total soluble carbohydrates ,level of proline in seedling leaf tissues at the age of 20 days and callus is 21 days old while a clear decrease in the total amount of protein in those tissues occur.