Hydrogeological and Hydro Chemical Evaluation of Groundwater in Karbala Region Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

Abstract

The study area is located in the holy governorate of Karbala, Iraq; the research studied a predictive mathematical model of groundwater within Dibdiba Formation and by fifty (50) wells distributed randomly within the boundaries of the study area, all of them fall within the unconfined aquifer. Likewise, there is no component to direct the activity of these wells, where a mathematical model for the study area has been developed using the groundwater system modeling program (GMS v.10). The area was divided into a grid where the dimensions of a single cell ranged from 250m×250m. The model of the steady flow state was adjusted utilizing pressure driven conductivity extending from 9 to 15 m/day with a 0.15 storage coefficient to match the groundwater levels measured with the calculated groundwater table. The model was run for unsteady flow condition in the first scenario with fifty (50) wells and five (5) years. The drawdown in the groundwater tables ranged between (0.05-1.05) m. In the second scenario, the model was run after adding thirty-six (36) wells for five (5) years, groundwater limits 0.15-1.15 meters. The drawdown values are concentrated near wells sites, and the drawdown decline as we move away from the sites of these wells and this reflects the nature of the water reservoir located in the study area, which is characterized by high production where compensation resulting from the operation of the wells decline rapidly by the reservoir. Therefore, the values of the drawdown in elevations appeared very low. The study also showed the possibility of drilling additional wells in this area depending on this model to benefit from them in the future for different uses.