Ancient Water System in Palestine in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Tunnel of Khirbet Bala’ma as the Model

Abstract

This research aims at shedding light on the Khirbet Bala’ma Tunnel, located south of Jenin. One of the most important ancient water systems used in Palestine, along with the Silwan and Al-Jib (Jerusalem), Tall al-Mutasallem (Megiddo), Tel Waqas (Tall al-Qudah, Hazor) and Tall Al Gazar (Gezer). The tunnel was used since the Late Bronze Age until the end of Ottoman rule. The researchers rely on the field documentation and the study of the books of travelers and European scholars. Archaeological salvage excavations were carried out in the tunnel under the supervision of Palestinian scientists, which discovered parts of the tunnel that were discovered during two seasons of archaeological work in