Intraoperative Assessment of Interleukin-2, Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-


Background: Cataract is a condition where the clear lens of the eye becomes dull. Diabetes mellitus iswell known disease that accelerate cataract progression. Cytokines are low molecular weight proteins thatmediate the immune response. Low-grade chronic inflammation and activation of the innate immunesystem are strongly related to the diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Interleukin-6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and certain other chemokines are inflammatory mediators areinfluenced in the development of diabetes and its complications.Objective: To evaluate and correlate the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α in theaqueous humor of eyes of diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing cataract surgery.Patients and Methods: Seventy cataract patients (51 males and 19 females) were included, their agesranging from 21 to 95 years. Intracameral cytokines IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α were detected using ELISA.Results: TNF-α significantly increased in the aqueous humor of diabetic patients more than in that of thenon-diabetic ones (p-value < 0.05). The aqueous humor contained detectable IL-2 levels more frequentlyin diabetic patients. This difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). On the other hand, IL-6 wasmore frequently detectable in the eyes of the non-diabetic patients.Conclusions: The distribution of cytokines in the aqueous sampling shows that TNF-α levels were higherin diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients. On the other hand, IL-6 levels were higher in non-diabeticpatients than in diabetic patients. With regard to IL-2, there was no significant difference.