EFFECT OF SEEDING DEPTHS OF TWO TYPES OF FURROW OPENERS AND CLOSERS IN ZERO TILLAGE SEEDER IN SOME MECHANIZATION TRAITS AND IN SOME GROWTH TRAITS

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out on (28/12/2012) in the agricultural season (2012-2013) in Bauazh / Tilkaif location (Moderate Rainfall Area-MRA) in a farmer's fields, experiment field was implemented Zero – Tillage farming system for several seasons. The field soil texture was clay. Italian Gaspardo Sc250 Seeder modified to ZT farming system used in the cultivation of bread wheat (Bohouth 4) the rainfall precipitation in the season was (516 mm). Experiment included three factors: the first factor was Press wheels with two levels, gang press wheel and mutual press wheel, the second factor was the Opener types with two levels, Hoe (Tine) Opener and inverted (T) Opener. The third factor was the seeding depths with two levels (3-4 cm) and (4.1-5 cm). Experiment was implemented with split split plot under randomized complete block design with three replicates where is the press wheels represent the main plot while the Openers within subplot while seeding depths was under sub sub plot. Following mechanization Traits were studied (the actual disturbed volume, the achieved depth), crop growth traits were also studied (number of plants/m2, expected loss rate). The results did not show significant differences between the two types of press wheel in (the actual disturbed volume and the achieved depth) While there were no significant differences between the two types Openers in the form of (the achieved depth) The obtained results indicated that the depth of the seed depth (3-4 cm) in the improvement (the actual disturbed volume, the achieved depth) compared to the depth (4.1-5 cm) Triangular interference between the pressure wheels on a single line, the Hoe tine and the depth (3-4 cm) showed the best values for the actual effect of the soil compared to the rest of the treatments. While the triangular interference between the pressure wheels on a single line with the inverted (T) depth (4.1-5 cm) was higher (the achieved depth) than the rest of the coefficients. Bilateral interference record between pressure wheels on a single line with the inverted T was the highest number of plants per square meter and the lowest loss ratio of the seeds compared to the rest of the treatments. Triangular interference between the pressure wheels on a single line, the inverted T and the depth (3-4 cm) the highest number of plants per square meter, and the lowest percentage compared to the rest of the transactions.