Geomorphological Characteristics of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the Iraqi Sedimentary Plain and their Impact on the Extinction and Change of Mesopotamian Civilization Centers (A Study in Historical Geomorphology)

Abstract

Abstract:The study of geomorphological characteristics of Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Iraqi sedimentary plain and their impact on the extinction and change of the Mesopotamian civilization centers (geomorphological study) focused on explaining the geomorphological effect of the Iraqi sedimentary plain, which is part of the lands of Tigris and Euphrates. The study shows that this basin is a result of the lifting movements that occurred as a result of the collision of the tectonic plates in the region (the Arab, Turkish and Iranian). The collision resulted in a convex fold, represented by the Taurus series, Zacros, Which was mostly filled with the deposits of Tigris and Euphrates rivers, especially during the four rainy periods that occurred in the era of the Palaeostosin. The sedimentary plain is also witnessing a continuous and balanced tectonic decline with large river sediments. A recent tectonic activation of some of its sides leads to a relative rise in the topography of the surface, forcing Tigris and Euphrates rivers to change their course several times. This behavior of the two rivers had the obvious effect of the extinction of ancient civilizations built on the banks of the ancient sewers and the establishment of settlements and the emergence of other civilizations on the sewers as in the case of the cities of Ur and Aridu, the birthplace of the Sumerian civilization, whose center was on one of the ancient Euphrates. The study also revealed that the characteristics of Euphrates geomorphological river were the main reason for the settlement of migratory people towards the land of Mesopotamia and the establishment of the first civilizations on it as Sumerian civilization, and Babylonian civilization, which was built on the course of Euphrates River in its second phase after it changed its old course and follow the course of the current Shatt al-Hillah City traces list to our present time. The study was based mainly on the field study of geomorphology of the region, as well as the work of the office relying on specialized sources, as well as relying on some information for the study area derived from some state departments such as topographic and administrative maps issued by the General Survey Authority.Keywords:- tectonic plates, Mesopotamian civilization, the Iraqi sedimentary plain, geomorphological characteristics of Tigris and Euphrates rivers.